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Ethical Issues in the Completion of Writing Projects James Brown, M.S. Simone Conceição, Ph.D. U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues in the Completion of Writing Projects James Brown, M.S. Simone Conceição, Ph.D. U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethical Issues in the Completion of Writing Projects James Brown, M.S. Simone Conceição, Ph.D. U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM

2 Avoiding Plagiarism U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM How to effectively use the works and words of others, without crossing the line or committing a crime in the process.

3 Plagiarism – A Definition Sometimes called “intellectual theft,” is the use of another’s words or works as if they were your own, and/or without giving proper credit to the source. You can also plagiarize your own works by submitting them for multiple academic credit without acknowledging that they were previously used or published.

4 Copyright Violation Vs. Plagiarism Copyright involves the distribution of material without the author’s consent; for example, you can credit the author, distribute the work, and still violate the copyright. Copyright is often a legal problem, handled by courts; Plagiarism is usually a civil problem, handled within a disciplinary procedure of an organization.

5 Three Acts of Plagiarism Failing to cite quotations and others’ ideas Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks Failing to put summaries and paraphrases in your own words D. Hacker (as cited in Wikipedia, 2006)

6 Four Types of Plagiarism Intentional – you copy an entire essay Accidental – through sloppy scholarship, you don’t properly paraphrase, summarize, cite, or list references Self-plagiarism – you “borrow” one of your papers and use it in another class “Cryptomnesia” – Unconscious or unmindful stealing from other sources (Wikipedia, 2006)

7 How Common is Cheating? A recent study by Green and Saxe (as cited by Stover & Kelly, 2005) revealed that around 80% of undergraduates admit to some form of cheating or collaboration. Since about 77% of these students go on to graduate school, the problem is passed on (Stover & Kelly, 2005).

8 What Happens When Students Cheat? Cheating may begin in order to avoid losing a perceived advantage in competition  This is especially common in business schools and other highly competitive programs Once the habit is formed, this strategy often follows into the work world RESULT: Cheating creates ethical problems for everyone; it can affect large corporations and businesses and cost thousands of innocent people their jobs and livelihoods. (e.g., Enron)

9 Consequences of Plagiarism Rarely involves criminal punishment, but can lead to devastating consequences such as: Loss of degree Loss of career Loss of credibility Large fines, if copyright is violated

10 Strategies for Dealing with Plagiarism Policies and Procedures at UWS Chapter UWS 14: Student Academic Disciplinary Procedures Educational Opportunities Such as this workshop

11 Discussion Point Take a moment to review the Student Academic Disciplinary Procedures, Chapter UWS 14. (Handout) For the UWM Graduate School, the link to this document is html

12 The Academic Writer Two primary requirements for academic writing: To make an original contribution to the literature To situate your paper within the context of your field among those already published SOURCE: “Using the Work of Other Authors.” (2004, para. 1). Retrieved 9/22/2006 from the website of Central European University at

13 How Many Words Constitute Plagiarism? No set number of words However, even a few words that are recognizable, keywords, or repeated word for word, can represent plagiarism SOURCE: “Using the Work of Other Authors.” (2004, para. 17). Retrieved 9/22/2006 from the website of Central European University at

14 What are the Benefits of Citing Other Works? It builds your authority It helps place your work in the field You help readers find more information on the topic You acknowledge your intellectual debt to scholars who have preceded you SOURCE: “Using the Work of Other Authors.” (2004, para. 17). Retrieved 9/22/2006 from the website of Central European University at

15 How do You Give Credit? Use proper citations with the text of the paper Give proper references with complete details of the cited works Use the style and publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Publication Manual (5 th Ed.)

16 Pop Quiz! What are the three acts of plagiarism that one can commit in writing academic papers?  1  2  3 If you unintentionally forget to credit a source, it isn’t really plagiarism.  T or F

17 Pop Quiz (Answers) Three acts of plagiarism: Failing to cite quotations and others’ ideas Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks Failing to put summaries and paraphrases in your own words. Plagiarism must be intentional: False. Your intentions here are not the issue; avoid making this error– always be conscious of your sources.

18 Propping Yourself Up Think of the three-legged stool. You won’t fall if you… 1. Cite and reference your quotations 2. “Use quotation marks for direct quotes” 3. Use your own words for paraphrases and summaries

19 Avoiding Plagiarism – Three Main Ways to Cite Direct quotation Paraphrase (rewording the concepts) or summary (shortened version) Integrate the author and information into the text SOURCE: “Using the Work of Other Authors.” (2004, para. 8). Retrieved 9/22/2006 from the website of Central European University at

20 Problem Areas in Academic Writing 1 : Quoting 2 : Paraphrasing 3 : Summarizing 4 : Citing This section is adapted from Menager-Beeley, R. & Paulos, L. (2006).

21 Problem Area 1: The Case of the Excessive Quotations Stringing together frequent and/or long quotes from other authors can cause you to lose your authority and your voice Detracts from impact of paper Indicates lack of own view Constitutes a form of plagiarism Diminishes opportunity for self- scholarship and contribution

22 Problem Area 1: The Case of the Excessive Quotations Since the inception of the term digital divide, coined by Dr. Simon Moors for a 1996 British Broadcasting Corporation interview (Wikipedia, 2006), the definition of this phenomenon has evolved from a simple socio- economic demarcation between “those who have access to telephones, personal computers, and the Internet across demographic groups” (Pinkett, 2001, p. 1), to include a much broader description of the gap in terms of these groups’ abilities to use an array of information and communications technologies (ICTs), including literacy and technical skills, as well as the availability of quality and useful digital content (Wikipedia, 2006). Davis Foulger (2001) frames the modern digital divide in terms of a series of cliffs (barriers) or a continuum of choices. He concludes his argument as follows: The digital divide (or digital cliff) of digital have not countries…can only be bridged by resolving the economic, infrastructure, computer access, and literacy gaps….The digital divide (or digital continuum) of digital have countries …will be bridged by making the use of Internet resources so inexpensive, appealing, and indispensable that even those who would prefer not to use such resources will feel obligated to do so. (para. 3) Brown, J. (2006). Narrowing the digital divide: Teaching strategies for a culturally-aware urban adult basic education program Whose voice is this?

23 Problem Area 2: The Case of the Stolen Phrase The most common reasons for failing to properly acknowledge paraphrases: Poor note-taking and scholarship Not enough time allowed to complete paper Failure to recognize that paraphrases still require citations You have been bitten by the plagiarism vampire (rare but painful)

24 Problem Area 2: The Case of the Stolen Phrase (Cont.) Specific requirements for writing a proper paraphrase: Avoid exact structure of passage Avoid using mainly synonyms to re-state the thought Include all the thoughts and the intent of the passage It should be approximately the same length as the original passage Avoid changing the meaning Look into my eyes!

25 Your Turn: Can You Paraphrase This Famous Passage? Such is the general purport of this legendary superstition, which has furnished materials for many a wild story in that region of shadows; and the spectre is known, at all the country firesides, by the name of the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. It is remarkable that the visionary propensity I have mentioned is not confined to the native inhabitants of the valley, but is unconsciously imbibed by every one who resides there for a time. However wide awake they may have been before they entered that sleepy region, they are sure, in a little time, to inhale the witching influence of the air, and begin to grow imaginative—to dream dreams, and see apparitions. Washington Irving (1783–1859). Irving, W. (2001). Rip Van Winkle and the legend of Sleepy Hollow. In Charles W. Elliott (Ed.), Harvard Classics Shelf of Fiction (Vol. X, Part 2). Retrieved 10/03/06 from

26 Your Turn: Is This a Good Paraphrase? Paraphrase Headless Horsemanlegendary spectreSleepy Hollowvisionnot confined to the inhabitants of the village unconsciously absorbedIn a little timebegan to imaginedreams apparition. The Headless Horseman was a legendary spectre of the village of Sleepy Hollow. The vision was not confined to the inhabitants of the village alone, but also unconsciously absorbed by everyone who visited there for a while. In a little time, they, too, began to imagine it in their dreams and to see the apparition. Original legendary spectre vision not confined to the native inhabitants of the valleyunconsciously in a little timebegin to grow imaginative—to dream dreams, and see apparitions Such is the general purport of this legendary superstition, which has furnished materials for many a wild story in that region of shadows; and the spectre is known, at all the country firesides, by the name of the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. It is remarkable that the visionary propensity I have mentioned is not confined to the native inhabitants of the valley, but is unconsciously imbibed by every one who resides there for a time. However wide awake they may have been before they entered that sleepy region, they are sure, in a little time, to inhale the witching influence of the air, and begin to grow imaginative—to dream dreams, and see apparitions.

27 Your Turn: Is This a Good Paraphrase? Paraphrase Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow visit the village for a while.visual power imagine superstitions. Irving’s (2001) famous passage, in which he introduces the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow, illuminates the infectious nature of the ghost story, passed on by villagers among themselves and any visitors unlucky enough to visit the village for a while. The story had such visual power that even these casual visitors would quickly succumb to the story. It wasn’t long before they, too, could easily imagine the ghost galloping along the countryside. A nightmarish ambience hovered over the village and fed their superstitions. Original Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollowvisionary propensity resides there for a time imaginative apparitions. Such is the general purport of this legendary superstition, which has furnished materials for many a wild story in that region of shadows; and the spectre is known, at all the country firesides, by the name of the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. It is remarkable that the visionary propensity I have mentioned is not confined to the native inhabitants of the valley, but is unconsciously imbibed by every one who resides there for a time. However wide awake they may have been before they entered that sleepy region, they are sure, in a little time, to inhale the witching influence of the air, and begin to grow imaginative —to dream dreams, and see apparitions. You are getting sleepy!

28 Problem Area 3: The Case of the Superficial Summary Unlike a paraphrase, your goal in using a summary is to significantly shorten the original source and refer to the points relevant to your own work. Use the C.I.E. approach Central Intelligence Estimate boils down the facts Avoid trivializing or sensationalizing the author’s findings Avoid changing the conclusion or meaning Be sure to cite Be sure to provide a reference Scholarship is a grave concern of mine!

29 Problem Area 4: An Advanced Case of APA There are too many rules for citations and references to remember all by yourself Have the APA Publication manual handy for reference Make friends with an editor Learn quickly with our online learning objects (LOs) Avoid speeding through your work; take the time to do a good job Hee Hee! (2006)

30 Let’s Clean Out the Skeletons in the Closet Quiz! Which of the four types of plagiarism is the most common? Unintentional; however, this is not an acceptable excuse.

31 Let’s Clean Out the Skeletons in the Closet Quiz! How long should a paraphrase be? About the same length as the original passage.

32 Let’s Clean Out the Skeletons in the Closet Quiz! Where can you find the UWM Code on Academic Conduct and Plagiarism? UWS 14 can be found online; also, be sure to get the handout!

33 Let’s Clean Out the Skeletons in the Closet Quiz! (Last one.) What’s the easiest way to avoid plagiarism? Don’t hurry your work; cite sources and include references.

34 You did it! Now this house rocks!

35 References American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Brown, J. (2006). Narrowing the digital divide: Teaching strategies for a culturally-aware urban adult basic education program. Unpublished manuscript, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Central European University (n.d.) Using the work of other authors. Retrieved 9/22/06 at Irving, W. (2001). Rip Van Winkle and the legend of Sleepy Hollow. In Charles W. Eliott (Ed.), Harvard Classics Shelf of Fiction (Vol. X, Pt. 2). Retrieved 10/3/2006 from Menager-Beeley, R. & Paulos, L. (2006). Understanding plagiarism: A student guide to writing your own work. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Plagiarism. (n.d.) Retrieved 9/21/06 from the web site of Wikipedia at Stover, M. & Kelly, K. (2005). Institutional responses to plagiarism in online classes: Policy, prevention, and detection. Retrieved 9/21/2006 from the web site of the 18 th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning at UWM Graduate School. (n.d.). UWS 14: Student academic disciplinary procedures. Retrieved 9/23/06 at

36 Questions? U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM

37 Thank You! Happy Writing! (James & Simone, 2006) U RBAN E DUCATION D OCTORAL P ROGRAM Audio clip from: Michael Jackson’s Thriller (1983)


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