Plagiarism Plagiarism is using the ideas or words of another writer, without any form of acknowledgment, as if they were your own. As a student, you must be very careful to acknowledge where all your ideas come from.
Your Responsibilities You probably already know that you must document your relevant sources for direct quotes. But you must also acknowledge: Key ideas (including diagrams, graphs, tables and so on) Paraphrased material Any other information that you did not think of for yourself.
Using Direct Quotes Remember that Direct Quotes are when you use an author’s exact words, phrases or sentences. Direct Quotes must be enclosed in double quotation marks. A citation for the direct quote should be put in parenthesis, directly after the direct quote, but before the period, using APA format. Even if you only use a short phrase, if it is unique in the original text, then you must quote it!
APA Format In CS440, you will cite all sources using APA format, including page numbers,on all citations. Guides to APA formatting can be found at: 1) RMIT University - Referencing APA: http://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/ 1_StudySkills/study_tuts/apa_LL/apa.html (6 pages) http://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/ 1_StudySkills/study_tuts/apa_LL/apa.html 2) Purdue University Online Writing Lab - APA Style Details: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/ (20 pages) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/02/
Direct Quote Example in APA Format Original text: Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only 10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted material. Direct Quote: When writing a research paper, no more than “10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted material” (Lester, 1999, pp. 117- 118).
Direct Quote Usage Rules Use direct quotes sparingly. If you use too many direct quotes, your sources are actually writing your assignment for you. Limit direct quote use to times when: The author’s word choices are important to keep, and changing them could cause a loss in meaning. You cannot say something differently than the author.
Paraphrasing The preferred method of avoiding plagiarism when incorporating source material is through the use of paraphrases. A paraphrase is a restatement of someone else’s ideas, evidence or opinions using your own words. Note that close paraphrase, where only trivial changes are made such as substituting similar words, is essentially the same as copying the author directly.
Paraphrasing Examples Paraphrasing examples (good and bad) can be found at the following sites: http://library.duke.edu/research/plagiarism/ cite/paraphrase.html http://library.duke.edu/research/plagiarism/ cite/paraphrase.html http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/ plagiarism.shtml#original http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/ plagiarism.shtml#original http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/ Examples%20of%20paraphrasing.html http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/ Examples%20of%20paraphrasing.html http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/ QPA_paraphrase.html http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/ QPA_paraphrase.html
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill, because it: Is better than quoting an average passage. Controls the temptation to quote too much. Helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. Proves to the reader that you know what you are talking about. Note that you must still cite a paraphrase containing unique ideas.
Labeling Ideas What is the best way to distinguish between what my sources are saying and what I’m saying in my paper? Be explicit. Tell your readers in the text of your paper when you are quoting or paraphrasing someone else’s words, ideas, or information. Do this with phrases like “According to X...” or “As noted in X..
Note Taking Example (paraphrased) Lester notes that in research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester, 1999).
Six Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 1. Read and re-read a source for understanding. 2. Put the source away. 3. Write key points that you remember without looking at the source. Note that you should not even be using the same sentence format.
Six Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 4. Compare your notes to the original to make sure you did not miss any key information AND that you did not plagiarize anything. 5. Enclose any exact borrowings (i.e. direct quotes) in double quotation marks. 6. Record the source and page numbers, whether quoted or paraphrased, for the Reference List.
Paraphrasing Conclusion In order to paraphrase a passage from a source, you have to understand it very well. You have to know what all the words mean, at least in that particular context. So by correctly paraphrasing your source material, with few direct quotes, you demonstrate to your facilitator, and any other reader, that you really understand the topic.
Final Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism Ensure that direct quotes are enclosed in quotation marks and that you have presented the words in direct quotes exactly as they appear in your source. When incorporating brief quotes into your own sentences, begin with your words and then weave your source's words into your sentence.
Use direct quotes sparingly. Attempt to paraphrase from source material whenever possible. Cite all of your source material, both for direct quotes and paraphrased material (if in doubt, provide a reference). Final Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
References Lester, James D. (1999). Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, 9 th edition. Reading: Addison-Wesley. NOTE: The more current edition of this guide is: Lester, James D. (2010). Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, 13 th edition. New York: Longman.