Presentation on theme: "Infinitive or Gerund? Teacher: Silvino Sieben 3ª série EM."— Presentation transcript:
Infinitive or Gerund? Teacher: Silvino Sieben 3ª série EM
► Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in its: ► gerund form (doing, singing) or ► infinitive form (to do, to sing). ► For example, only one of the following sentences is correct. Which one? ► I dislike working late. (???) ► I dislike to work late. (???)
When to use the infinitive ► The infinitive form is used after certain verbs: - forget, help, learn, teach, train - choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like - agree, encourage, pretend, promise, recommend - allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse - forget, help, learn, teach, train - choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like - agree, encourage, pretend, promise, recommend - allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse ► I forgot to close the window. ► Mary needs to leave early. ► Why are they encouraged to learn English? ► We can't afford to take a long holiday.
► The infinitive form is always used after adjectives, for example: - disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised ► I was happy to help them. ► This includes too + adjective: ► The water was too cold to swim in. ► The infinitive form is used after adjective + enough: ► She is rich enough to buy two.
► The infinitive form is always used after verb + object For example: ► He invited us to go. ► They told me. ► They told me to wait. ► Sarah asked her mother. ► Sarah asked her mother to come. ► Remind Jon to pay his bills.
► The infinitive form is always used expressions like the first, the second, the last, the only and the pronouns who, where, when, what, how, whose. ► He was the last to know the secret. ► She is the second to play today. ► We don’t know when to look for it. ► Wise people always know what to do.
► The infinitive form is always use for purpose/reason. ► He studied to pass the test. ► (Why did he study? TO PASS the test.) ► Jane waited for the waiter to complain. ► (Why did she wait? TO COMPLAIN)
► The bare infinitive form is always used after but, except, had better and would rather For example: ► She does nothing but cry. ► They should do nothing except wait. ► We’d better hurry. ► I’d rather go home by car. BARE INFINITIVE = WITHOUT “TO”
When to use gerund The gerund form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause: ► Swimming is good exercise. ► Doctors say that smoking is bad for you. The gerund form is used after a preposition: ► I look forward to meeting you. ► They left without saying "Goodbye."
► The gerund form is used after certain verbs: - avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind/not mind, practise ► I dislike getting up early. ► Would you mind opening the window?
► Some verbs can be followed by the -ing form or the infinitive without a big change in meaning: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, propose, start. ► It started to rain. ► It started raining. ► I like to play tennis. ► I like playing tennis.
Fill in the blanks with the infinitive or gerund form ► 1. We like ______ our grandmother on Sundays. (visit) ► 2. I might want _____ your Science notes. (borrow) ► 3. My father hates _____a tie to work. (wear) ► 4. We can't afford ______ a vacation this summer. (take) ► 5. The company was pleased ______ your thank-you letter. (receive)
► 6. Would you mind _____ a window? (open) ► 7. My suitcase is light enough _____ myself. (carry) ► 8. She cannot leave the table without ______ her dinner. (finish) ► 9. The music will continue _______until you turn it off. (play) ► 10. My little brother dislikes ______his hair brushed. (have)
Now, it is your turn to practice with the expressions ► Create a sentence with each verb or expression