Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE COMMA When in doubt, leave it out!. Use #1: Lists Series, list In order for your application to be complete, you must submit a resume, a statement.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE COMMA When in doubt, leave it out!. Use #1: Lists Series, list In order for your application to be complete, you must submit a resume, a statement."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COMMA When in doubt, leave it out!

2 Use #1: Lists Series, list In order for your application to be complete, you must submit a resume, a statement of interest and two references from former employers. *note that a comma before the and is not necessary – it’s not wrong either.

3 Use #1: Lists Series of adjectives (description words) – use when there is a natural pause. If ‘and’ works between adjectives, it probably uses a comma. He was a tall, distinguished man. Sara was a smart, motivated young woman. She was a little old lady.

4 Use #1: Lists Use commas to separate items in a list or series, including lists of adjectives that describe a noun: Some types of toothed whales are dolphins, orcas, and sperm whales. These are some of Saul's favorite activities: reading, cycling, eating, and napping. Ernest Hemingway's sentences are terse, direct, and uncomplicated.

5 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels rods brushes and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens rattled chains against the chimney walls or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor small and helpless. Their work was dirty dangerous and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks burnt by hot ashes or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

6 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens rattled chains against the chimney walls or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor small and helpless. Their work was dirty dangerous and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks burnt by hot ashes or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

7 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor small and helpless. Their work was dirty dangerous and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks burnt by hot ashes or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

8 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty dangerous and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks burnt by hot ashes or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

9 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks burnt by hot ashes or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

10 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks, burnt by hot ashes, or choked by soot. They were badly paid badly fed and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

11 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks, burnt by hot ashes, or choked by soot. They were badly paid, badly fed, and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

12 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks, burnt by hot ashes, or choked by soot. They were badly paid, badly fed, and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes shake his hand or kiss him.

13 Commas in series: There are many ways to clean a chimney. Today, people use shovels, rods, brushes, and flashlights. In the 1800s, people brushed the chimney with evergreens, rattled chains against the chimney walls, or sent boys up the chimney. The boys were poor, small, and helpless. Their work was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. They could be hurt by falling bricks, burnt by hot ashes, or choked by soot. They were badly paid, badly fed, and badly treated. The boys’ master, the chimney sweep, had an easier life. People thought he brought luck, so they wanted to touch his brushes, shake his hand, or kiss him.

14 Use #2: Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses (Subordination) Use a comma after an introductory word, phrase, or dependent clause.

15 Subordination – Sentences with a dependent and independent clause 1. main (independent) clause: one that can stand alone and express a complete thought 2. subordinate (dependent) clause: one that depends on another element for its complete meaning

16 A main clause is a complete sentence; a subordinate clause, because it depends on something else, isn't-- even though it has a subject and a verb. 1. I sit in front of the fireplace. 2. We go for a walk. 3.The man put tarps on the floor. 4. Sara decided to dye her hair blue. These are all main clauses because the ideas are complete.

17 The following are all subordinate clauses. 1. When it is cold. 2. After the dishes are put away. 3. Before painting the walls. 4. Because she liked the color. The ideas are incomplete. These “sentences” standing alone would be what are called fragments. Think about it: if I come into the room and haven't spoken to you, you'll be a little puzzled if all I say is "When it is cold." You're going to be waiting for more information.

18 Some clue words that (at the beginning of a sentence) might indicate a dependent clause: after, although, as, because, before, if, since, though, until, when, even though One way to put these examples together clearly and correctly is called subordination: When it is cold, I sit in front of the fireplace. or: I sit in front of the fireplace when it is cold.

19 After the dishes are put away, we go for a walk. or: We go for a walk after the dishes are put away.

20 Before painting the walls, the man put tarps on the floor. orThe man put tarps on the floor before painting the walls.

21 Because she liked the color, Sara decided to dye her hair blue. or Sara decided to dye her hair blue because she liked the color. Notice the punctuation. When a subordinate clause begins a sentence, always put a comma after it. If the subordinate clause comes after the main clause, you usually need no comma.

22 Don’t use a comma when the main clause comes before the dependent clause. Incorrect: She was late for class, because her alarm clock was broken. Incorrect: The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating.

23 Introductory elements Sometimes, it’s just one word: * Fortunately, no one in the bridal party was in that car. * Sadly, the old school was completely destroyed. Sometimes, it’s a phrase: * On the other hand, some people like eggplant. * Running for third base, Jane slipped and broke her ankle. * Once in awhile, a whole group of people imagines the same thing.

24 Some common introductory words & phrases: Also For instance For example InsteadFirst Last Furthermore In addition However OtherwiseAfterwardIn fact

25 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died she inherited his fortune. Sadly the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

26 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died she inherited his fortune. Sadly the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

27 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

28 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

29 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

30 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

31 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

32 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

33 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases, doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

34 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases, doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished, Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

35 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases, doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished, Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died, the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

36 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases, doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished, Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died, the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore, it had 47 fireplaces. Today you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

37 Commas with subordination and introductory phrases: In San Jose, California, there is a house known as the Winchester Mystery House. After Sarah Winchester's husband died, she inherited his fortune. Sadly, the inheritance was not an unmixed blessing. Because the fortune came from the sales of the popular Winchester rifle, she felt guilty. Afraid of being haunted by the ghosts of people killed with the rifle, she built a house to protect herself. To fool the spirits who might be after her, she built rooms with no doors. High up the walls of beautiful rooms, windows look only into other rooms. At the top of grand staircases, doors open onto walls. Because she believed that she would stay alive as long as the house was unfinished, Mrs. Winchester kept adding on to it. When she died, the house had 160 rooms, 200 doors and 10,000 windowpanes. Furthermore, it had 47 fireplaces. Today, you can visit the Winchester Mystery House and take a guided tour.

38 Use #3: Non-essential Words and Phrases (Interrupters) Use commas to delineate words and phrases that are unnecessary to a reader's understanding of a sentence. The words and phrases often rename or tell more about the words they modify. Carole King, a songwriter, helped pave the way for female musicians in the 1960s. Desert Rose, a type of Franciscan dishware, is a popular seller at most antique malls.

39 Put commas before and after the name of a person, place, or thing named or addressed in a sentence: My dog, Jerry, barks wildly when he hears the ice cream truck drive past our house. How, Nurse Ratched, do you intend to explain this broken window?

40 Non-essential elements If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence still make sense? Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in the original sentence?

41 Non-essential elements Fred, who often cheats, is just harming himself. My niece, wearing a yellow jumpsuit, is playing in the living room. Apples, which are my favorite fruit, are the main ingredient in this recipe. Professor Benson, grinning from ear to ear, announced that the exam would be tomorrow. Tom, the captain of the team, was injured in the game. She was, however, too tired to make the trip. Two hundred dollars, I think, is sufficient. I’m going to two parties, Sara’s and then Rob’s.

42 Words of Direct Address Mr. Sulu, go to Warp 5. Beam me up, Scotty! If it weren’t for you, Spock, there’d be no aliens aboard. Fellow crewmembers, why do you think we have to wear these funny clothes?

43 Don't ever use a comma to separate the subject from the verb. Incorrect: An eighteen-year old in California, is now considered an adult. Incorrect: The most important attribute of a ball player, is quick reflex actions.

44 Commas with non-essential information: My friends it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford three recent presidents played football in college. The young Nixon who was a reserve tackle sat on the bench most of the time. Ford a center at the University of Michigan even got pro offers from two teams the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown a cowboy hero in the movies was an All- American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

45 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford three recent presidents played football in college. The young Nixon who was a reserve tackle sat on the bench most of the time. Ford a center at the University of Michigan even got pro offers from two teams the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown a cowboy hero in the movies was an All- American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

46 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon who was a reserve tackle sat on the bench most of the time. Ford a center at the University of Michigan even got pro offers from two teams the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown a cowboy hero in the movies was an All- American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

47 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford a center at the University of Michigan even got pro offers from two teams the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown a cowboy hero in the movies was an All- American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

48 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford, a center at the University of Michigan, even got pro offers from two teams, the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown a cowboy hero in the movies was an All-American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

49 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford, a center at the University of Michigan, even got pro offers from two teams, the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown, a cowboy hero in the movies, was an All-American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions later became known as Byron White a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

50 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford, a center at the University of Michigan, even got pro offers from two teams, the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown, a cowboy hero in the movies, was an All-American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White, a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions, later became known as Byron White, a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson the actor and country-western singer was right at home in Semi-Tough a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

51 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford, a center at the University of Michigan, even got pro offers from two teams, the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown, a cowboy hero in the movies, was an All-American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White, a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions, later became known as Byron White, a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson, the actor and country-western singer, was right at home in Semi-Tough, a movie about football. He had been while living in California a football star at Pomona College.

52 Commas with non-essential information: My friends, it is a little known fact that many famous people got their start in football. Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford, three recent presidents, played football in college. The young Nixon, who was a reserve tackle, sat on the bench most of the time. Ford, a center at the University of Michigan, even got pro offers from two teams, the Chicago Bears and the Detroit Lions. Johnny Mack Brown, a cowboy hero in the movies, was an All-American halfback at the University of Alabama. “Whizzer” White, a player with the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Detroit Lions, later became known as Byron White, a Supreme Court justice. Kris Kristofferson, the actor and country-western singer, was right at home in Semi-Tough, a movie about football. He had been, while living in California, a football star at Pomona College.

53 Use #5: Fanboys (Coordination) Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so--a.k.a. fanboys) to separate two independent clauses: Hannibal provided his army with a team of elephants, for he knew the gargantuan beasts could withstand the freezing mountain temperatures.

54 Use #5: Fanboys (Coordination) Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so--a.k.a. fanboys) to separate two independent clauses: Claire went to the Farmer's Market for a bushel of beets, but she forgot her wallet at home. Claire went to the Farmer's Market for a bushel of beets but forgot her wallet at home.

55 Use #5: Fanboys (Coordination) Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so--a.k.a. fanboys) to separate two independent clauses: Barbers now just cut hair, but they used to also do surgery. Barbers now just cut hair but used to also do surgery.

56 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

57 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

58 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

59 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

60 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders, and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

61 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders, and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

62 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders, and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

63 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders, and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time, and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

64 Commas with coordination You can go to an auction, and you can see people bidding in the strangest ways. People sometimes shout their bids, but that can make an auction very noisy. Instead, buyers often wiggle their noses to make a bid, or they tug at their ears. Some bidders shrug their shoulders, and others tip their hats. People may need to scratch their noses when they itch but may not want to buy anything. Some people are afraid of making an accidental bid and don’t move at all. These people worry a lot but a good auctioneer can tell when a bid is really being made. Bidders tell the auctioneer their signals ahead of time, and the auctioneer knows what to look for. At an auction, you can wiggle your nose all you want, and you don’t have to worry about buying an ugly antique you can’t afford.

65 Comma Splices and Run-ons Two complete sentences cannot just be strung together, nor can they be connected with only a comma. The first is a run-on sentence; the second is a comma splice. 1. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor he gets in trouble. 2. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor, he gets in trouble.

66 Comma Splices and Run-ons 1. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor he gets in trouble. 2. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor, he gets in trouble. Neither of these is correct. The first runs two main clauses together without any kind of punctuation. This is a run-on sentence. The second joins two main clauses together with only a comma. This is a comma-splice.

67 Comma Splices and Run-ons 1. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor he gets in trouble. 2. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor, he gets in trouble. What's the problem? Each main clause expresses a complete thought. If you run two or more complete thoughts together without the right punctuation, they tend to blur.

68 There are four ways to get rid of comma-splices or run-on sentences. Find the problem clauses and: * separate them with a period (.). The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor. He gets in trouble. * separate them with a semicolon (;). The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor; he gets in trouble.

69 There are four ways to get rid of comma-splices or run-on sentences. Find the problem clauses and * join them with a coordinating conjunction. The dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor, and he gets in trouble. * subordinate one clause. When the dog leaves muddy paw prints on the kitchen floor, he gets in trouble.

70 Which is best? They're all correct, so the choice is up to you. Just decide which way sounds the best with the rest of the sentences around the problem. Remember that a semi- colon’s use is closer to a period’s than a comma’s. Don’t put a semi-colon where you couldn’t use a period.

71 *Tip – They’re not technically run-ons, but overly wordy sentences should also be avoided. I went to the grocery store to buy some milk and eggs. NOT: I went to the grocery store to buy some milk, and I went to the grocery store to buy some eggs.

72 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

73 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

74 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

75 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

76 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

77 Comma splices and run-ons: Pirates of the ancient Greco-Roman world are rarely romanticized. In fact, they are usually forgotten altogether they did pose a serious threat to ancient Mediterranean cultures. Most Greco-Roman pirates were not employed only as pirates. They were merchants, farmers, and fishermen, they often sailed on day trips to loot neighboring villages. In short, they were opportunistic sailors who used piracy as a way of supporting their families. However, piracy was not highly regarded in the Greco-Roman world, many rulers tried to eliminate all piratical activity in the Mediterranean. Most attempts were unsuccessful in 67 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey led a sweeping campaign against several active pirate bases and nearly wiped out Mediterranean piracy entirely. However, pirates remained. Getting rid of piracy in the Greco-Roman world was a top priority for many rulers; nevertheless, pirates endured, they plundered, pillaged, and continued to terrorize towns and villages.

78 Dates: Use a comma between the number of the day and the number of the year in a date: Hank Aaron hit his record-breaking home run on April 8, 1974.

79 Dates: If the date (with day) does not come at the end of a sentence, use another comma after the number of the year: April 8, 1974, was an exciting day for Hank Aaron’s fans.

80 Dates: Do not use a comma in a date that has only the name of a month and the number of the year: Aaron hit his final home run in July 1976.

81 Dates: Do not use a comma in a date that has only the name of a month and the number of a day: April 8 is the anniversary of Aaron’s record- breaking home run.

82 Place Names and Addresses Use a comma between the name of a city or town and the name of a state or country: The world’s largest chocolate factory is in Hershey, Pennsylvania.

83 Place Names and Addresses If the two names don’t come at the end of a sentence, use another coma after the name of the state or country: Hershey, Pennsylvania, is the home of the world’s largest chocolate factory.

84 Place Names and Addresses Use a comma between parts of an address where you would use a new line on an envelope: Write me in care of Post Office Box 203, Shelton, Connecticut (The comma after the state and before the zip code is optional)

85 Commas in place names and dates: Jake and Sandy finished their time machine on October They set the dial to July and attended the World Championship Watermelon Seed-Spitting Contest in Chicago Illinois. Then they traveled to February and saw a swamp-buggy race. August found them in Springfield Massachusetts at the Annual Hobo Convention. Finally, they returned to October 3149 and told all of their friends about the eating habits and social lives of prehistoric people.

86 Commas in place names and dates: Jake and Sandy finished their time machine on October 30, They set the dial to July and attended the World Championship Watermelon Seed-Spitting Contest in Chicago Illinois. Then they traveled to February and saw a swamp-buggy race. August found them in Springfield Massachusetts at the Annual Hobo Convention. Finally, they returned to October 3149 and told all of their friends about the eating habits and social lives of prehistoric people.

87 Commas in place names and dates: Jake and Sandy finished their time machine on October 30, They set the dial to July 1, 1972, and attended the World Championship Watermelon Seed-Spitting Contest in Chicago, Illinois. Then they traveled to February and saw a swamp-buggy race. August found them in Springfield Massachusetts at the Annual Hobo Convention. Finally, they returned to October 3149 and told all of their friends about the eating habits and social lives of prehistoric people.

88 Commas in place names and dates: Jake and Sandy finished their time machine on October 30, They set the dial to July 1, 1972, and attended the World Championship Watermelon Seed-Spitting Contest in Chicago Illinois. Then they traveled to February 1, 1970, and saw a swamp-buggy race. August found them in Springfield Massachusetts at the Annual Hobo Convention. Finally, they returned to October 3149 and told all of their friends about the eating habits and social lives of prehistoric people.

89 Commas in place names and dates: Jake and Sandy finished their time machine on October 30, They set the dial to July 1, 1972, and attended the World Championship Watermelon Seed-Spitting Contest in Chicago Illinois. Then they traveled to February 1, 1970, and saw a swamp-buggy race. August 11, 1972, found them in Springfield, Massachusetts, at the Annual Hobo Convention. Finally, they returned to October 3149 and told all of their friends about the eating habits and social lives of prehistoric people.

90 Next, do the Commas Check exercise on page 64. When you’ve finished, check your answers using the answer key posted on blackboard. Complete the 10 perfect sentences assignment. Review pages 65 and 66 (fragments and run-ons). Do the GED practice questions on pages 67 and 68 and enter your answers using the answer sheet on BB (first item for week 2).


Download ppt "THE COMMA When in doubt, leave it out!. Use #1: Lists Series, list In order for your application to be complete, you must submit a resume, a statement."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google