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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 12 Personality

2 What is Personality? Characteristics of behavior
Four basic perspectives: psychoanalytic humanistic trait social-cognitive

3 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud’s theory Personality influenced by: childhood sexuality unconscious motivations

4 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Unconscious Freud: Mostly unacceptable thoughts & wishes OR Now (non-Freudian): information processing of which we are unaware Preconscious info that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness

5 Personality Structure (Freud)

6 Personality Structure
Id Location: unconscious Role: to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Motto: “Pleasure Principle”

7 Personality Structure
Ego Location: conscious Role: “executive”; Mediates id & superego Motto: “Reality Principle”

8 Personality Structure
Superego Location: spans unconscious & conscious Role: our ideals, conscience, judgment, guilt Motto: “Perfection”

9 Personality Structure
Id Superego Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind Freud’s idea of the mind’s structure

10 Psychosexual Stages (Freud)

11 Personality Development
Identification Children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. Fixation: Arrested Development (see previous slide)

12 Defense Mechanisms Protect the Ego Operate Unconsciously
Distort Reality

13 Defense Mechanisms Repression Reaction Formation
anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories are kept out of consciousness Reaction Formation unconscious switching of unacceptable impulses into their opposites

14 Defense Mechanisms Projection Rationalization
their own threatening impulses are attributed to others Rationalization self-justifying explanations in place of the real reasons

15 Defense Mechanisms Displacement Regression
aggressive impulses directed toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person Regression Reverting to older more immature behavior to express feelings

16 Assessing the Unconscious
Projective Test Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

17 Assessing the Unconscious--TAT

18 Assessing the Unconscious
Rorschach Inkblot Test Projective test. a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach

19 Assessing the Unconscious--Rorschach

20 The Trait Perspective Trait Personality Inventory
a characteristic pattern of behavior A pre-disposition to feel and act assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports Personality Inventory used to assess selected personality traits

21 The Trait Perspective The “Big Five” Personality Factors
Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive

22 The Trait Perspective “Big Five” Personality Test online: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests

23 Humanistic Perspective
Abraham Maslow ( ) Self-Actualization the motivation to fulfill one’s potential

24 Humanistic Perspective
Carl Rogers ( ) focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals. Self-Concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question “Who am I?” Ideal vs. Real Self

25 Humanistic Perspective
Carl Rogers Unconditional Positive Regard Ideal vs. Real self an attitude of total acceptance toward another person IDEAL VS REAL GREATER DIFFERENCE -- LOWER

26 Humanistic Perspective
Individualism Collectivism

27 Humanistic Perspective
Morality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based) Attributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects social behaviors and attitudes and roles Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) (identity from belonging) Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in uniqueness What matters Me--personal achievement and We--group goals and solidarity; fulfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationships Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valued

28 Social-Cognitive Perspective
Personal Control External Locus of Control chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate Internal Locus of Control one controls one’s own fate

29 Social-Cognitive Perspective
Learned Helplessness (Seligman) hopelessness and resignation occurs when we are unable to avoid or control repeated negative events

30 Social-Cognitive Perspective- Learned Helplessness
Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior

31 Social-Cognitive Perspective
Positive Psychology Martin Seligman the scientific study of optimal human functioning

32 Personality- Summary The Four Perspectives on Personality
Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques Evaluation Psychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-test between pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul- impulses and social restraints motivations tural impact Trait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit- influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under- as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability (b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situation patterns to situation Humanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory that about oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporary one’s experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in- people and their situation, of people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning, colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s cognition, and social behavior, control behavior in particular criticized as underestimating situations the importance of emotions and enduring traits

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