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Chapter 12 Personality: Theory, Research, and Assesment.

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1 Chapter 12 Personality: Theory, Research, and Assesment

2 Table of Contents OBJECTIVES: Explain the 5 Factor Model Describe Freuds theory of personality development: –Id, Ego & Superego –Iceberg theory of consciousness –Psychosexual stages

3 Table of Contents Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness Personality Traits –Dispositions and dimensions The Five-Factor Model –Openness to experience –Conscientiousness –Extraversion –Agreeableness –Neuroticism

4 Table of Contents The Trait Perspective The Big Five Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious (Neurosis) Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive

5 Table of Contents Psychodynamic Perspectives Freuds psychoanalytic theory –Structure of personality Id - Pleasure principle Ego - Reality principle Superego - Morality –Levels of awareness – ice berg Conscious – 10% above water Unconscious – 90% below water –Conflict Sex and Aggression Anxiety Defense Mechanisms

6 Table of Contents Personality Structure Freuds idea of the minds structure Id Superego EgoConscious mind Unconscious mind

7 Table of Contents The school year is ending and final exams are near.You have done well, but are having difficulty in your Psychology class.You know that in order to get a grade of B, the minimum acceptable by your parents, you must get an A on the final.You have tried studying, but feel it is an unattainable goal.As you are leaving campus to go home on the afternoon prior to the test, you find a group of papers in the hall which has apparently been dropped by someone.You look down, and find that one of the dropped papers has the heading Psychology: Final Exam.You pick up the paper and look at it quickly, noticing that no one has seen you.What do you do next?

8 Table of Contents Psychology:Final Exam Create dialogue on how your ID, EGO and SUPEREGO would discuss this problem.What would the ID be telling you to do, what would the SUPEREGO be telling you to do, how is the EGO involved. ex. –ID: bla bla bla –SUPEREGO: bla bla bla

9 Table of Contents Freud on Development: Psychosexual Stages Sexual = physical pleasure Psychosexual stages –Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital Fixation = Excessive gratification or frustration Overemphasis on psychosexual needs during fixated stage Oedipus Complex a boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father necessary for development of superego; the boy identifies with the father

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13 Other Psychodynamic Theorists a.k.a = Neo-Freudians Carl Jung –Analytical Psychology personal unconscious -which houses material that is not within ones conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten; and the collective unconscious - which houses latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past. Archetypes - emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning… Introversion/Extroversion Alfred Adler - argued that Freud had gone overboard with his focus on sexual conflict –Individual Psychology Striving for superiority Compensation Inferiority complex/overcompensation Birth order

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15 Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Pros Insights regarding –The unconscious –The role of internal conflict –The importance of early childhood experiences Cons –Poor testability –Inadequate empirical base –Sexist views

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17 Behavioral Perspectives Skinners views –Conditioning and response tendencies –Environmental determinism Banduras views –Social leaning theory Cognitive processes and reciprocal determinism Observational learning Models Self-efficacy Mischels views –The person-situation controversy

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21 Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives Pros –Based on rigorous research –Insights into effects of learning and environmental factors Cons –Over-dependence on animal research –Fragmented view of personality –Dehumanizing views

22 Table of Contents Humanistic Perspectives Carl Rogers –Person Centered Theory Self-concept –Conditional/unconditional positive regard –Incongruence and anxiety Abraham Maslow –Self-actualization theory –Hierarchy of needs The healthy personality

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27 Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic theories are credited with highlighting the importance of a persons subjective view of reality. They are also applauded for focusing attention on the issue of what constitutes a healthy personality. They are criticized for lacking a strong research base, poor testability, and what may be an overly optimistic view of human nature (Maslow had a hard time finding live people who had self-actualized).

28 Table of Contents Biological Perspectives Eysenks theory –3 higher order traits –Extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism Determined by genes Twin studies –Novelty seeking and genetics The evolutionary approach –Traits conducive to reproductive fitness

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32 Evaluating Biological Perspectives Pros –Convincing evidence for genetic influence Cons –Conceptual problems with heritability estimates - heritability estimates vary depending on sampling procedures and other considerations, and should only be used as ballpark figures. –Artificial carving apart of nature and nurture - they interact in complicated ways –No comprehensive biological theory

33 Table of Contents Self-Reporting Tests 16 PF - Hans Eysenck Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) now used for many other screening purposes

34 Table of Contents Assessing the Unconscious Projective Test a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of ones inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

35 Table of Contents Assessing the Unconscious-- TAT

36 Table of Contents Assessing the Unconscious-- Rorschach

37 Table of Contents Assessing the Unconscious Rorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

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