Presentation on theme: "Tools for exploring the world: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor development Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:
1 Tools for exploring the world: Physical, Perceptual, and Motor development Chapter 3
2 The Newborn Learning objectives How do the reflexes help newborns interact with the world?How do we determine whether a baby is healthy and adjusting to life outside the uterus?What behavioral states are common among newborns?What are the different features of temperament? Do they change as children grow?
3 The Newborn’s Reflexes The newborn is born with certain specific responses that are triggered by specific stimuliSome of these reflexes, such as rooting and sucking, appear to have survival implicationsOther reflexes appear to be precursors for later voluntary motor behaviorThe newborn reflexes may also reflect the health of the child’s nervous system
4 Assessing the newborn The Apgar Index -Heart rate -Respirations -Muscle tone-Reflexes-Skin tone
6 The newborn’s statesAlert InactivityWaking activityCryingSleeping
7 Fine motor development Grasping objects- ages 2-3 monthsTransfer object between hands-age 7 monthsPincer grasp age 10 monthsRemove objects from a container -11 monthsBuild tower of two blocks- 12 months
8 Gross motor development Head controlRolling over -ages 5-6 monthsSit alone -7 monthsMove from prone to sitting position -10 months
10 Crying Basic Cry -Starts softly and builds in volume and intensity -Often seen when the child is hungryMad cry-More intense and louderPain cry-Starts with a loud wail, followed by a longpause, then gasping
11 Sleeping Newborns sleep an average of 16-18 hours daily Newborns usually follow a sleep-wake cycle of around 4 hours of sleep followed by 1 hour of wakefulnessBy 3 or 4 months, newborns usually sleep through the nightREM sleep gradually decreases from 50% of the newborn’s sleep to about 25% at the age of 1 year
12 Co-sleepingThe practice of sleeping in the same room or bed with the childResearch shows no evidence of increased dependenceCo-sleeping has the advantage of avoiding elaborate sleep-time rituals
13 Sudden Infant death syndrome (sids) SIDS is the sudden unexplainable death of a healthy babyThe exact causes of SIDS are unknown. May be related to parent’s smoking, the child sleeping on their stomach, and overeatingRisk is reduced when infants sleep on their backsAfrican American infants are twice as likely to die from SIDS because they are more likely to be placed on their stomachs to sleep
14 Dimensions of temperament Activity level-Motor activityPositive Affect-Pleasure, enthusiasm, and contentmentPersistence-Amount of resistance to distractionInhibition-Extent of shyness and withdrawalNegative Affect-Irritability and tendency toward anger
15 Rothbart & Hwang Theory of Temperament Surgency/extraversion-How happy, active, and stimulation-seekingis the child?Negative affect-Is the child angry, fearful, frustrated, shyand not easily soothed?Effortful control-Can the child focus their attention andinhibit responses?
16 Heredity and environment Contributions to temperament Twin Studies-The correlation of activity levels infraternal twins was found to be .38-For identical twins the correlation inactivity level was found to be .72-Similar findings for social fearfulness,persistence, and proneness to anger
17 Stability of temperament Studies suggest that temperament tends to be somewhat stable throughout infancy and the toddler years
18 Physical development Learning Objectives -How do height and weight change frombirth to 2 years of age?-What nutrients do young children need?How are they best provided?-What are the consequences ofmalnutrition? How can it be treated?-What are nerve cells, and how are theyorganized in the brain?-How does the brain develop? When does itbegin to function?
19 Principles of growth Growth is continuous and orderly process Cephalocaudal: “head to tail”Proximodistal: “center to periphery”
20 Growth of the bodyGrowth is more rapid in infancy than during any other period after birthInfants double their weight by three monthsInfants triple their weight by 1 yearAverage is not the same as NormalInfancy-Most rapidPreschool to puberty-Rate of growth slows
21 Factors Influencing Development Heredity and environmentGender differences vs. cultural expectationsDiseasePrenatal influencesSocioeconomic statusInterpersonal relationshipsStressTelevision and mass media
22 Cognitive development PiagetSensorimotor phase-Birth to 1 month –reflex stage-1-4 months –primary circular reactions-reproduction of an event that initiallyoccurred by chance-4-8 months –secondary circular reactions-repetition of an action involving an external object-Imitation-Play-Affect
23 Nutrition and growthBecause growth is so rapid, young babies must consume large amounts of calories relative to their body weightBreast feeding is the best way to ensure proper nutritionNew foods should be introduced one at a time.
24 Promoting Optimum health during infancy Nutrition-breast milk is the first choice only for the first 6 monthsIntroduction of solid foods-Introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 daysto allow for identification of food allergiesWeaning from breast to bottle
25 malnutritionWorld-wide about 1-4 children under 5 are malnourished (UNICEF, 2006)Malnourished children develop more slowlyMalnourishment is most damaging during infancy due to rapid growth rate
26 The emerging nervous system The brain and the rest of the nervous system consists of cells known as neuronsNeurons consist of a soma, dendrites, the axon, and terminal buttonsTerminal buttons release chemicals call neurotransmitters
27 The brain The brain has 50-100 billion neurons The wrinkled surface of the brain is called the cerebral cortexThe two halve of the brain are called hemispheresThe two hemisphere are connected by the corpus callosum
28 The making of the working brain The brain weighs about three-quarters of a pound at birth-about 25% of an adult brainAt around 3 years of age the child’s brain is about 80% of an adult’s brain weight
29 Emerging brain structures Neural plate-3 weeks after conception-A flat structure of cells formBy 28 weeks after conception, the brain has all the neurons it will ever haveIn the 4th month of prenatal development, axons begin to form myelin, which helps to speed transmission
30 Structure and function: Brain Mapping methods Studies of children with brain damageElectroencephalogram (EEG) studies of infantsFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (F- MRI) tracks blood flow in the brain
31 Brain plasticityNeuro-plasticity: The brain show flexibility in the development of it organizationWhile individual’s brains show similar structure and function, environmental demands may affect organization and mapping of the brain
32 Neuro-plasticity Evidence-expectant growth -The development of the brain is affectedby experiences that are common to mosthumanExperience-dependent growth-Changes in the brain that are not linkedto specific points in development andvary across individuals and cultures
33 Early motor skills Learning Objectives -What are the component skills involved inlearning to walk? At what age do infantsmaster them?-How do infants learn to coordinate the useof their hands?
34 locomotion By 7 months, infants can sit alone At around 14 months toddlers may stand aloneDynamic Systems Theory-The idea that motor development involvesmany distinct skills that are organizedand reorganized over time to meetdemands of specific tasks
35 Posture and Balance Infants are “top heavy” and easily lose their Within a few months, infants use inner ear and visual cues to adjust postureInfants must relearn balance each time they achieve new postures
36 steppingMany infants move their legs in a stepping- like motion as early as 6-7 monthsWalking unassisted in not possible until other skills are mastered and the child is developmentally ready
37 Coordinating skillsWalking skills must be learned separately and then integrated with othersDifferentiation: Mastery of component skillsIntegration: Combining them in sequence to accomplish the task
38 Cultural impact on motor development Some cultural practices encourage certain early motor skillsVarious cultures have different practices that may discourage early motor developmentDespite cultural differences in average age of skill development, children acquire skills within a normal range
39 Fine motor skills At 4 months, infants clumsily reach for objects By 5 months, infants coordinate movement of the two handsBy 2-3 years, children can use zippers but not buttonsTying shoes is a skill that develops around age 6 years
40 handedness About 90% of children prefer to use their right hand Most children grasp with their right hand by age 13 moths and a clear preference is seen by 2 yearsPreference is affected by heredity but environmental factors influence it too
41 Learning objectivesAre infants able to smell, taste, and to experience pain?Can infants hear? How do they use sound to locate objects?How well can infants see? Can they see color and depth? How do infants coordinate information between different sensory modalities, such as between vision and hearing?
42 Coming to know the world perception Newborns have a good sense of smell-They turn toward pleasant and unpleasant-They turn toward pads soaked in their ownamniotic fluid, or odors of their mother’sbreastNewborns can differentiate between tastes-They differentiate between salty, sour,bitter and sweet-Facial reactions are obvious reactions tosweet tastes
43 Touch and pain Babies react to touch with reflexes and other movements Babies react to painful stimuli with a pain cry-a sudden high-pitched wail-not easily soothed
44 hearing Startle reactions suggest that infants are sensitive to sound 6 month olds distinguish between different pitches as well as adultsBy 7 months, infants can use sound to locate direction and distance
45 seeingNewborns respond to light and track moving objects with their eyesVisual acuity (clarity of vision) is the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependablyInfants at 1 month see at 20 feet what adults see at feetBy 1 year, the infant’s visual acuity is the same as an adultcom
46 color Newborns perceive few colors 1 month old infants can differentiate between blue and gray, as well as red and green3 to 4 month old infants can perceive colors similar to adults
47 DepthVisual cliff studies show that children as young as 6 weeks react with emotional indicators or interest to differences in depthAt 7 months, they show fear of the deep side of the cliffInfants at 4-6 months use retinal disparity (the difference between the images of objects in each eye) to discern depthInfants of 5 months use motion and interposition to perceive depth
49 Depth perception Children use cues to infer depth -Kinetic Cues -Visual Expansion-Motion Parallax-Retinal DisparityBy 7 months, children use pictorial cues such as:-Linear Perspective-Texture Gradient
50 Perceiving objectsPerception of objects is limited in newborns but develops soonInfant group objects together that have the same texture, color and aligned edges
51 Perceiving facesNewborns prefer to look at moving faces until around 4 weeks, then track moving objectsAt first, infants process faces as though they are unrelated elements within a collectionBy 7-8 months, infants process faces similarly to adults, as a unique arrangement of features
52 Integrating sensory information Infants soon begin to perceive the link between visual images and soundsInfants seem to pay more attention to intersensory redundancy, or information simultaneously coming from different sensory modes
53 Becoming self-aware Learning Objectives -When do children begin to realize thatthey exist?-What are toddlers and preschoolers self-concepts like?-When do preschool children begin toacquire a theory of mind?
54 Origins of Self concept 9 month old infants smile at the face in the mirror but do not seem to recognize it as their own facesBy months, infants see the image in the mirror and touch their own face, suggesting that they know that the image in the mirror is theirs.Preschoolers can describetheir physical characteristics,preferences, andcompetencies
55 Theory of mindBy age 2, children understand that people have desires and these cause behavior3 year olds can distinguish between the mental world and the physical world4 year olds understand that behavior is based on beliefs that the beliefs can be wrong