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Lacewings Family Chrysopidae Location: worldwide Habitat: Temperate, tropical and terrestrial forest and grassland Lacewings communicate with one another.

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Presentation on theme: "Lacewings Family Chrysopidae Location: worldwide Habitat: Temperate, tropical and terrestrial forest and grassland Lacewings communicate with one another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lacewings Family Chrysopidae Location: worldwide Habitat: Temperate, tropical and terrestrial forest and grassland Lacewings communicate with one another using substrate-borne vibrational songs Songs are produced by jerking motions of the insect's abdomen Both males and females use the same song during courtship These songs are specific to each lacewing species

2 Palm Cockatoo Probosciger aterrimus Location:Northern tip of Cape York Peninsula, Australia Habitat: rainforest, occasionally eucalypt and palm woodland, forest edges Palm cockatoo males display to females during courtship by drumming on tree trunks with sticks Males have been found to use sticks or other similar objects (bones) to drum on tree trunks Males have been observed spending a great deal of time fashioning sticks into drumming sticks

3 Humming Toadfish Porichthys notatus Male toadfish use their swim bladder muscles to dazzle females with a unique mating call that sounds like a bullfrog The toadfish can vibrate its swim bladder muscle an astounding 200 times per second, more than twice the speed of a rattlesnake tail Toadfish are also lined with many tiny light-producing organs Location: Alaska to the Gulf of California and migrates from deep Pacific waters to spawn in shallow water within tidal limits Habitat: bury themselves in sand or mud during the day and at night they hover over the sea bed

4 Fireflies Family Lampyridae Location: Worldwide, particularly in tropical Asia, and Central and South America Habitat:areas of water such as ponds, streams, marshes or even depressions, ditches, etc., that may retain moisture longer than surrounding areas Left: Flash of male Bigdipper firefly Fireflies use a flash of light to communicate during courtship A firefly's light is turned on or off by controlling the air supply to the luminescent organs. The chemical luciferin is instantly converted to light in the presence of a specific enzyme and oxygen.

5 Black Gibbon Hylobates Syndactylus Location: Southeast Asia, primarily Malaysia (Malay Peninsula) and Indonesia (Sumatra) Habitat: upper forest canopy in semi- evergreen and evergreen tropical forests from 500 to 2500 feet Black Gibbons communicate with loud vocalizations that they make with their enlarged throat sac The throat sac can inflate to the size of a human head Their songs can be heard up to 2-3 miles away Males and females call to each other to strengthen their pair bond and family groups call to advertise territories

6 Location: Breeds in Bering Strait area, western Alaska, and islands in eastern Canadian Arctic, northern Eurasia. Winters in Old World Habitat: Breeds on sandy areas or grassy tundra. Winters in mudflats, beaches, and shores Ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula Ringed plovers attempt to distract possible predators from their nests by running away and pretends to have a broken wing Once predators are a safe distance away from the plover nest, the parent resumes normal movement and returns to the nest

7 Water strider Family Gerridae Some water striders communication with each other using water ripples Males use ripples for attracting mates or to defend their territories Males will grasp a solid object such as a piece of emergent vegetation with its forelegs and then bob its body while standing freely on the water surface Water striders also use ripples to detect prey Location: Worldwide Habitat: Aquatic, on the surface of calm water

8 Vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops Location: southern Sahara to the whole southern part of the African continent Habitat: woodland, savanna and high bush Social monkeys that use a highly developed set of vocal and visual displays, each communicating different types of information Examples: Purring: quiet call given by juveniles during play- wrestling Chirp: long distance call emitted by females and juveniles in response to major mammalian predator

9 Túngara frog Physalaemus pustulosus Males attract mates by calling with a whine and, sometimes, a chuck Females prefer the whine and chuck However, fringe-lipped bats (who like to eat Túngara frogs) are more likely to find and capture males giving the whine and chuck call Fringe-lipped bats act as illegitimate receivers- meaning that they benefit from listening in on frog calls, while the frogs clearly suffer a cost Location: Central America and northern S. America Habitat: Lowland tropics; shallow, stagnant pools

10 Honey guide Indicator minor Honey guides sing and display to get the attention of large mammals such as humans and honey badgers People and/or honey badgers then follow the honey guides to a beehive, which they break open, to eat the larvae, honey and wax The honey guides benefit from guiding mammals to beehives because they get to eat whatever is leftover Location: Tropical Africa and Asia Habitat:forest, gallery forest, coffee plantations

11 Thomson's gazelle Gazella thomsoni Location: Eastern Africa Habitat: Terrestrial. Open plains and grasslands When gazelles spot a predator such as a wild dog, they will hop high into the air as they escape, a behavior called “stotting”. Gazelles stot in order to tell their predators that they are in good health and would be difficult to catch. They only stot when pursued by predators that they can outrun. For instance, cheetahs are very quick runners and gazelles do not stot when approached by them

12 Mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi Location: eastern Mediterranean regions Habitat: fossorial, spend most of their life-time underground in burrows Blind mole rats communicate with seismic vibrations that they produce by drumming their heads against the top of their tunnels They are solitary rodents and use drum threats to each other to avoid direct contact Blind mole rats use their jaws auditory system (sense of hearing) to detect vibratory signals

13 Skylark Alauda arvensis Location: Europe and the temperate zone of Asia Habitat: saltmarsh, coastal grazing land, arable farmland and uplands When skylarks are being chased by their main predator, the merlin, some skylarks sing very loudly These loud calls advertise the health and vigor of skylarks Merlins are less likely to catch skylarks giving loud calls compared to silent or skylarks that are poor callers

14 Bellbird Anthornis melanura Location: New Zealand- main islands and many off-shore islands Habitat: native and exotic forests, orchards and gardens Surprisingly loud voice in relation to size. Dawn song consists of 3-5 bell-like notes. Calls are given at dawn to take advantage of quiet Calls include the whistle, click, chuckle, gurgle and trill. Both males and females call Calls are used to maintain territories and pair bonds

15 Ground Hornbill Buceros leadbeateri Location: E, ne South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, n Botswana and ne Namibia Habitat: African savanna Deep booming calls, usually heard as 4-note phrase Repeated at dawn for long periods to proclaim territory Males and females call in duets to maintain pair bond Ground hornbills pair for life

16 Indri Indri indri Location: Madagascar Habitat: primary and secondary lowland and mid-altitude rain forest from sea level to about 1500 m The indri has a characteristic call, consisting of a series of howls These howls serve to unite groups, express territoriality and convey information about age, sex and reproductive ability Indris are lemurs that live in social groups in which females are dominant

17 White-collared mangabey Cercocebus torquatus Location: Sub-Saharan western Africa Habitat: Terrestrial and arboreal. Tropical forests Mangabeys are very social animals with a highly developed communication system They communicate by means of shrieks and other sounds as well as by means of expressive facial gestures chuckle: alarm call to warn other mangabeys of nearby predators whoop-gobble: serves to communicate spacing, only used by mature males, call may be heard for a distance of up to 1 kilometer

18 Wolf spider Family Lycosidae Location: Common throughout the U.S. and Canada Habitat: Forest leaf litter Wolf spiders use multiple modes of communication Visual displays Vibratory signals These signals are used by wolf spiders to identify species and individuals Males court female spiders by waving their legs in complex displays and tapping on the ground (vibration signals) Males also use visual displays during aggressive interactions with other males

19 Fire worm Class Polychaeta Location: Tropical western Atlantic and at Ascension Island in mid-Atlantic Habitat: Abundant on reefs, beneath stones in rocky or sea grass areas and on some muddy bottoms In Bermuda, female fireworms come to the surface and emit a greenish phosphorescent glow This attracts the males, which dart towards the females, emitting flashing lights at the same time

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