Presentation on theme: "Natural Habitats. Outline Populations and Communities Ecosystems Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biomes Biomes of the World Wetlands Natural Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
Biotic Factors Biotic Factors: the living parts of an ecosystem – Examples – animals, plants, bugs
Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors: the nonliving parts on an ecosystem – 4 important ones 1. Water 2. Soil 3. Sunlight – primary source of energy in the ecosystem. 4. Temperature
Biomes Biome: large geographic areas that have similar climates and similar plants/animals that live there – 3 important factors that make up a biome 1. Temperature 2. Precipitation (type and amount) 3. Organisms that live there (plants and animals)
Biomes of the World Major Biomes of the world 1. Tundra 2. Taiga 3. Deciduous Forest 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Desert 6. Grassland 7. Freshwater 8. Saltwater
Tundra Location: – Arctic Regions (North Pole) Temperature: – Yearly average is -30°F Precipitation: – Snow – 6-10 inches per year Other information: – Ground is permanently frozen 3-10 inches below the surface
Taiga Location: – Russia, Canada Temperature: – Winter is -65°F to -30°F – Summer is 20°F to 70°F Precipitation: – Mostly snow – 12-30 inches per year Other information: – Also called the Coniferous Forest
Deciduous Forest Location: – Easter United States, Europe Temperature: – Moderate temperatures – 4 seasons Precipitation: – Rain and snow – 30-60 inches per year Other information: – Where we live
Tropical Rain Forest Location: – South America, Central Africa, Southeastern Asia Temperature: – Yearly average of 70°F to 90°F Precipitation: – Rain – 60-200 inches per year Other information: – Produces 40% of the Earth’s oxygen – 25% of all medicines come from Rain Forest plants
Desert Location: – Southwestern United States, Northern Africa, Australia Temperature: – Yearly average of 70 ° F to 80 ° F Precipitation: – Rain – 3-10 inches per year (usually falls at one time) Other information: – Extreme high temps of 140 °F
Grassland Location: – Midwestern United States, Africa Temperature: – Yearly temperatures of 40°F to 70°F Precipitation: – Rain (Africa), Rain and Snow (US) – 12-30 inches per year Other information: – Savannah – grasslands in Africa – Prairie – grasslands in United States
Freshwater Biomes Any of body of water that is made of freshwater. (salt content < 1%) Includes lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers, but can include puddles and any “standing “ water. Only 3% of the water on Earth comes from freshwater biomes. 99% of all freshwater is either in the form of ice or located in an aquifer.
Saltwater Biomes Saltwater biomes cover about 75% of the Earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries. Saltwater is water with a salt content > 1%, but typical ocean saltwater is about 3.5% salt.
Saltwater Biomes Algae in the oceans supply most of the Earth’s oxygen supply! Evaporation of seawater provides moisture in the air which in turn provides rain for the land!
Wetlands What are Wetlands? – A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally. – The soil in wetlands is uniquely suited to aquatic plants. Man-made Wetland Wildwood Park, Harrisburg
Wetlands Importance of Wetlands: - Very biologically diverse ecosystem. (Many plant and animal species) - Wetlands are a natural water filtration system that help to purify local water sources.
Natural Environmental Change Succession: Natural, gradual changes in the types of species of plants and animals that live in an area.
Succession Primary Succession: Succession beginning in an area with no soil such as a volcanic island. Slow process! Secondary Succesion: Faster succession occurring in an area that already has soil present. Area destroyed by a forest fire would be one example! Climax Community: Community that has reached a stable stage of succession. This would be the end of succession!
Natural Environmental Change Limiting Factors: Anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population. Lack of water, food, space, mates, as well as predation and disease can all limit a population!
Natural Environmental Change Abiotic Biotic Biotic Interactions - Living things need a constant supply of energy to survive. The Sun is the main source of energy for all living things (Abiotic). - Living things also produce energy by utilizing water and nutrients found in their environments (Abiotic). - The water and nutrients can come directly from the Earth or can be obtained from eating other plants or animals (Biotic).
Natural Environmental Change Producer – Any organism that uses outside energy sources (Sun) to produce energy rich molecules. - Most contain chlorophyll. Plants use chlorophyll during photosynthesis. Plants are producers! Consumer – Any living thing that cannot make its own energy rich molecules. Consumers must eat other living things to get energy. - All animals are consumers!
Environmental Change Due to Human Impact Pollution – The introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse (bad) change. – Although most pollution comes from man some can be introduced naturally (example: volcanic ash)
Environmental Change Due to Human Impact Eutrophication – Natural response in an ecosystem to the addition of nitrates and phosphates. These chemicals can come from untreated sewage and fertilizers used on crops. - Can cause sudden growths of algae and bacteria - Oxygen is reduced and aquatic animals can die off! http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=6LAT1gLMPu4
Environmental Change Due to Human Impact Invasive Species – Non-native species in an ecosystem. - Usually introduced by man (many times by accident) - Can compete with and kill off native species. - Can be plants or animals. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0gwlAnwu7g
Environmental Change Due to Human Impact Deforestation – Removal of trees and plants in a forest so that the land is converted forever to non-forest use.