Presentation on theme: "Phrases. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and ends with an object ( a noun or pronoun). A prepositional phrase."— Presentation transcript:
Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and ends with an object ( a noun or pronoun). A prepositional phrase may have a compound object. All modifiers of the object(s) are part of the prepositional phrase * under the green couch * to her and me Prep Adj Obj prep Obj Obj A prep. phrase adds information to a sentence by modifying another word in the sentence. [ Which gorilla? Where did it run?] EX: The gorilla near the fence ran to the zookeeper with food. Sometimes a prepositional phrase modifies the object in a preceding prepositional phrase. Another thing to remember is that more than one word may modify the same word. Ex: For several minutes the gorilla stared at me. [Both phrases modify the same word.]
Prepositional Phrases: Adjective Phrases An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun in the sentence. Like adjectives they answer the questions “Which one?” Or “What kind?” EX: The gorilla in the tree is named Sam. [The adjective phrase modifies the noun gorilla.] EX: Sam is one of the gorillas born last spring. [The adjective phrase modifies the pronoun one.]
Prepositional Phrases: Adverb Phrases An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. EX: The gorilla laughed at me. [ The adverb phrase modifies the verb laughed.] EX: He was the largest of all the gorillas. [ The adverb phrase modifies the adjective largest.]
Participles A participle is a verb that acts as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun. There are two kinds of participles: Present Participles Present Participles Always have an –ing ending * Usually ending in –d or –ed * The past participles of irregular verbs have different endings
Participle Phrases A participle phrase is made up of a participle and all of its modifiers. A participle phrase may contain objects, modifiers, and prepositional phrases. The whole phrase acts as an adjective. EX: Looking intently at the map, Jerry found New Hope. EX: Larry made the crown worn by Queen Esther.
Gerunds A gerund, ending in –ing, is a verb form that acts as a noun. Gerunds in a sentence can do anything that nouns can do. Examples: Skiing is her favorite sport. [subject] Her favorite sport is skiing. [predicate nominative] Have you ever tried skiing? [direct object] Give skiing a chance. [indirect object] Sue borrowed a book about skiing. [object of the preposition.]
Infinitives An infinitive is a verb form that is almost always preceded by the word to. In a sentence, an infinitive can act as a noun, adjective, or an adverb. Ex: Anne-Marie likes to paint. [infinitive as noun] We were among the first people to leave. [infinitive as adjective] He is quick to anger. [Infinitive as adverb]
“To” The word “to” is called the sing, or marker, of the infinitive. But remember that “to” can also be a preposition. “To” is part of an infinitive if it is followed by a verb “To” is a preposition if it is the start of a prepositional phrase. Infinitive Prepositional Phrase The toddler likes to sing. The toddler hands the doll to her father.
Infinitive Phrases An infinitive phrase is a phrase made up of an infinitive and all its modifiers and complements. It may contain one or more prepositional phrases. Ex To become an electrical engineer is David’s ambition. It is easy to paint a room with a roller. Sometimes the “to” of an infinitive or an infinitive phrase is left out because it is understood. *Hal helped [to] wash the car *Please let me [to] finish the mystery.
Appositives and Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or explains the noun or pronoun that precedes it. An appositives phrase is a phrase made up of an appositive and all its modifiers. ____________________________________________________________ Using appositives and appositive phrases helps you combine sentences and avoid unnecessary repetition. EX The appositives phrases are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas. Original- Bryan is moving to Colorado. He is our next-door neighbor. Combined- Bryan, our next-door neighbor, is moving to Colorado.
Appositive Phrases Con’t. Do not use commas if an appositive is essential to understand the sentence. - No Comma: The explorers Lewis and Clark traveled through the Northwest territory. [since there were many explorers the appositive is essential. Do not use commas.] - Commas: The capital of Colorado, Denver, is one mile above sea level. [The appositives add extra information but it’s not essential since there is only one capital.]
Grammar for Writing - Level Blue. Sadlier and Oxford: New York, 2007.