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SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES  Troubadours and trouveres: –First large body of secular songs surviving –Composed during 12 th and 13 th c.  Best known.

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Presentation on theme: "SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES  Troubadours and trouveres: –First large body of secular songs surviving –Composed during 12 th and 13 th c.  Best known."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES  Troubadours and trouveres: –First large body of secular songs surviving –Composed during 12 th and 13 th c.  Best known troubadour: Guillaume IX, duke of Aquitain, southern France  Best known trouvere: Chastelain de Couci, northern France

2  Age of chivalry  Knights, Crusades, songs about love songs about love and fighting bravely and fighting bravely

3  Love songs were usually performed by court minstrels –Notation lacks rhythm, but they were probably performed with a regular meter and clearly defined beat – differ from Gregorian chant –Why do you think?

4  Southern France, some women troubadours (Beatriz de Dia)  Wandering minstrels –Music and acrobatics in castles, taverns, town squares –Minstrels – no civil rights, lowest social class  Level with prostitutes and slaves  Important source of information

5  Estampie – a medieval dance, one of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music –single melodic line is notated –No instrument specified  Common instruments were used: –Rebec – bowed string instruments –Pipe – tubular wind instrument –Psaltery – plucked or struck string instrument

6 LISTENING TO ESTAMPIE  Estampie –Books pg. 90

7 POLYPHONY: ORGANUM  Organum – medieval music that consists of a Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines  Between , first steps taken –Originally, a second melodic line was improvised, usually just duplicating the melody on a different pitch –Two lines moved in parallel motion in fourths or fifths

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9  Organum –Between : became truly polyphonic  More melodic curve instead of parallel motion  Sometimes contrary motion

10  C. 1100, second line became even more independent when the chant and the added melody differed rhythmically  Bottom line usually longer notes, top line shorter

11  School of Notre Dame: Measured Rhythm –After 1150, Paris: center for polyphony –1163: Cathedral of Notre Dame –Leonin and Perotin: two successive choirmasters, first notable composers known by name  they and followers are the school  Used measured rhythm – time values, meter

12  At first, rhythm was all in threes – representing the Holy Trinity

13 LISTENING FOR ORGANUM  Alleluia: Nativitas –Perotin

14 YOUR TURN  Homework: Using the staff paper provided, compose a two-part organum. –Start and end each voice on the same pitch. –Should have at least 8 notes in the bottom voice, –At least 18 notes in the top voice


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