Presentation on theme: "Medieval Music. Sacred Music Plainchant – Single, simple melodic line – Sacred text – Notation used neumes – Hildegard Von Bingen Wrote antiphons (poetic."— Presentation transcript:
Sacred Music Plainchant – Single, simple melodic line – Sacred text – Notation used neumes – Hildegard Von Bingen Wrote antiphons (poetic text set to chant) and the musical drama Ordo Virtutum for the nuns at her convent Gregorian Chant – Single melodic line, more complex than plainchant – Sacred text – Pope Gregory often credited with the development of Gregorian chant, but this is debated by scholars – Used church modes—Ionic, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, Locrian – Improvisation was common Mass – Introit – Kyrie – Gloria – Gradual – Alleluia – Offertory – Sanctus – Agnus Dei – Commuion – Ite, missa est
Organum Characteristics – A plainchant melody with at least one added voice – Organum duplum—2 voices, Organum triplum—3 voices, Organum quadruplum—4 voices – Added voices may include a supporting bass line or may follow the melody in parallel motion – Originally, the second voice was improvised; later composers began writing down more complex parts, creating polyphony Leonin( ) – First known composer of organum – French – Works preserved in Magnus Liber—book of organum Perotin(1200-?) – Also French, known for organum – Works preserved in Magnus Liber – Known for taking a well-known melody and stretching it out so that it becomes a drone, over which more rhythmically complex parts are woven
Secular Music Troubadors – Composers/performers of lyric poetry – Themes of chivalry and courtly love – Many humorous or vulgar satires – Bernart de Ventadorn – Beatriz de Dia – Wizlau von Rugen Musical Plays – Adam de la Halle—Jeu de Robin et de Marion –
Clausula A clausula is a self-contained bit of organum ending with a cadence. It contained a polyphonic section for two or more voices sung in discant style (note against note) over a “cantus firmus” (chant melody) Composers composed many "substitute" clausulae that were designed to fit within the organum as a subsitute for the original.
Motet Eventually words were added to the clausulae and the first motets were born Rhythm strayed from earlier rhythmic modes and instead was driven by the text Sacred and secular motets were written Some motets incorporated more than one language Phillipe de Vitry and Gulliame Machaut were two significant composers of Medieval motets