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“Reconstructing and Expanding America” Reconstruction and Its Aftermath 1865-1877.

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Presentation on theme: "“Reconstructing and Expanding America” Reconstruction and Its Aftermath 1865-1877."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Reconstructing and Expanding America” Reconstruction and Its Aftermath 1865-1877

2 Focus Question Who were the southern politicians who claimed that the states were not morally bound by postwar constitutional amendments and so could restrict the rights of the freed slaves. A- Carpetbaggers B- Radicals C- Scalawags D- Redeemers

3 Background Reconstruction of America following the Civil War was extremely difficult for Southerners whereas the Northerners where able to rebuild and begin The new America. The North and the South could not agree upon major issues such as; race, government, politics, and what role women would play in society before the war occurred, and not much had changed after the war ended. The Civil War carried vast consequences for the nation’s future. During reconstruction former slaves and many small white farmers became trapped in a new system of economic exploitation known as sharecropping in exchange for land, a cabin, and supplies. High interest rates charged for goods bought on credit transformed sharecropping into a system of economic dependency and poverty.

4 War Goals South War Goals were to become a independent and sovereign Country. North War Goals were to bring the 13 states that succeeded back into the Union.

5 Effects felt by the North & South The South lost 2/3 of their shipping industry, railroads, and 1/3 of all livestock. People were heavily in debt, courts were not functional. 20% of the militaries aged men were killed, 8% decline in the black population. The south who were the leaders of the cotton industry had found itself in despair. The southern society was greatly disrupted. The North society began to boom. The steel and textile industry was producing twice as much as the South. The North had a greater death toll than the South despite those lost, the North population began to grow and flourish. Southern blacks were free Southern whites went through class conflicts. Southerners paid others to fight in the war on their behalf Southerners had argued that blacks were inferior.

6 Presidential Reconstruction 1863 President Lincoln indicates his post war policy whereby rebel states regain their legal standing when 10% of its voters swear allegiance to the Union and accept the end to slavery. This was Lincoln’s way of a quick, non- punitive presidential reconstruction.

7 President Lincoln’s Death 1865 President Lincoln is assassin. Lincoln did not have a plan for reconstruction after his death, so when he dies all his plans for American dies with him.

8 President Johnson 1865 President Johnson did not share the views of Lincoln. Johnson plan was to remove all rights of blacks, including voting. President Johnson was extremely racist, didn’t like the North or Plantation owners. The confederate states received full rights under the Johnson plan. The North became extremely concerned with Johnson’s plan. The North began a radical reconstruction. Johnson was led by a group of southern redeemers who felt that the states were not bound by postwar constitutional amendments and so could restrict the rights of the freed slaves.

9 The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freed African Americans in rebel states, and after the Civil War, the 13 th Amendment emancipated all U.S. slaves wherever they were. As a result, the mass of southern blacks now faced the difficulty Northern blacks had confronted --- that of a free people surrounded by many hostile whites. After the Civil War, with the protection of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th amendments to the constitution and the Civil Rights Act of 1866, African Americans enjoyed a period when they were allowed to vote, actively participate in political process, acquire the land of former owners, seek their own employment, and use public accommodations.

10 Unraveling Reconstruction 1865 KKK- Pulaski Tennessee Started out as a social fraternity 1866-1867 becomes extremely violent Nathan Bedford Forrest reorganized the KKK to a military form. 1871 Congress held hearings on the Klan and passed a tough anti-Klan law modeled after a North Carolina statute. 1870’s white southerners had retaken control of most Southern state government and didn’t need the Klan as much as before. White Southern Democrats won elections easily, and passed laws taking away many rights that blacks had won during Reconstruction.

11 Freedmen’s Bureau 1865 Program that congress set up to assist newly freed African- Americans by providing food, medical care, and help with resettlement. The Freedmen’s Bureau most notable task was the development of over 1000 schools which trained African Americans with an adequate education. The Bureau ran out of funds shortly after and was unable to prevent the emergence of Black Codes. The Bureau was terminated in 1872.

12 Results of Reconstruction The result was a system of segregation which was the law of the land for more than 80 years. This system was called “separate but equal,” which was half true- everything was separate, but nothing was equal.

13 The End of Part I Topics to be discussed later in Part II. 1. Civil Rights Movement 2. The role the North played after Johnson’s reconstruction plan 3. Grant Administration 4. 1876 Election corruption Hayes (VS) Tilden

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