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Chapter 21 The Byzantines Words, Terms and People to Know

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1 Chapter 21 The Byzantines Words, Terms and People to Know
Byzantium Theology Icons Charlemagne Constantine Cyril Tribonian Hagia Sophia Justinian Theodora Belisarius Patriarch of Constantinople Metropolitans

2 Byzantine Empire Istanbul-not Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire during its greatest territorial extent under Justinian. c. 550. Byzantine Empire Istanbul-not Constantinople During it’s 1,000 year existence it copied and preserved Roman law and art and eventually Christianized the East. Byzantine culture was Roman—but it was in the east and attempting to maintain its western ideas among easterners was difficult. It took an average ship 15 days to go north to south, and over a month from Crete to Cadiz. It was simply too large to effectively govern. Called the 2nd Rome it was a city astride Europe, and Asia. Roman Empire in the West lasted 5 centuries. Persian Empire lasted 3 centuries. Only Egypt lasted longer and it lasted so long for similar reasons. Byzantines called themselves Romans Begun by Constantine in 330 A.D. lasted until 1453— 1,123 years!

3 Justinian bankrupts Byzantium by trying to reestablish the empire in its entirety.
Belisarius may be the bearded figure on Emperor Justinian I's right in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. By the 6th century Byzantium was exhausted, its resources spent and a large part of Italy’s population was killed in the wars. The high point of Byzantine culture would come in the 8th an 9th centuries when it was smaller, more compact and better able to defend and oversee its interests.

4 The Byzantines were believers that the empire was willed by and protected by GOD!
Due to its religious convictions Byzantium was very conservative in nature. It was not so important who was emperor and a change of emperors did not mean a change in policy. In the West, men lived their lives under many different legal systems and types of government, including: Manorial System Clans King and his central govt. Church In Byzantium there was only the Emperor.

5 There was no “constitutional” way to remove an emperor from office.
In the Byzantine East the Emperor was God’s emissary. It did not matter how he got there—thru assassination, election, intrigue or whatever; it was God’s will. He was chosen by heaven. He was the supreme power over government, Church and law This view of God, religion, and the state, offered a stability the West did not enjoy. However, it made for some very interesting changes of governmental leadership. There were 88 Byzantine emperors. One third of them were usurpers. Byzantine emperors were poisoned, strangled, beheaded, blinded, pulled apart and struck by lightening. It didn’t matter—it was God’s will that it happen and the next person in line was the emperor! There was no “constitutional” way to remove an emperor from office. Only a successful revolution could remove an emperor. Success gave it the seal of approval of God and heaven.

6 Many Violent Deaths for Byzantine Emperors
(479?479) MARCIANUS Son of Anthemius and husband of Leontia daughter of Leo I; rebel in Constantinople, defeated (484?488) LEONTIUS Patrician; crowned by Verina at Tarsus, captured at Antioch and executed 491?518 ANASTASIUS I Dicorus Decurion of the Silentiarii; married Ariadne widow of Zeno (513?515) VITALIANUS Magister Militum of Thrace; submitted to Anastasius I, murdered 520 518?527 IUSTINUS I Commander of the Excubitores 527?565 IUSTINIANUS I Son of Sabbatius by Vigilantia sister of Iustinus I (532?532) HYPATIUS Son of Secundinus by Caesaria sister of Anastasius I; proclaimed during Nika riot, executed 565?578 IUSTINUS II Son of Dulcetius by Vigilantia sister of Iustinianus I 578?582 TIBERIUS CONSTANTINUSCommander of the Excubitores; Caesar 572, co-ruler 578 582?602 MAURICIUS TIBERIUSSon of Paulus; husband of Constantina daughter of Tiberius Constantinus; Caesar and co-ruler 582; deposed and executed by Phocas   THEODOSIUS Son of Mauricius Tiberius; co-ruler 590?602; murdered (?) 602?610 PHOCAS Centurion; deposed and executed by Hērakleios 610?641 HĒRAKLEIOS Son of Heraclius exarch of Arfica 641?641 HĒRAKLEIOS KŌNSTANTINOS Son of Hērakleios; co-ruler 613 641?642 KŌNSTANTINOS HĒRAKLEIOS Son of Hērakleios; co-ruler 638 (called Hēraklōnas); deposed and mutilated   TIBERIOS DAUID Son of Hērakleios; Caesar 641?642; deposed and mutilated 642?668 KŌNSTANTINOS III the Bearded, Hērakleios, son of Hērakleios Kōnstantinos; co-ruler 641 (called Kōnstas); murdered (668?669) MIZIZIOS Rebel general in Sicily; captured and executed 668?685 KŌNSTANTINOS IV Son of Kōnstantinos III; co-ruler 654   HĒRAKLEIOS Son of Kōnstantinos III; co-ruler 659?681; deposed and mutilated   TIBERIOS Son of Kōnstantinos III; co-ruler 659?681; deposed and mutilated 685?695 IOUSTINIANOS II the Slitnosed Son of Kōnstantinos IV; co-ruler 681; deposed and mutilated 695?698 LEONTIOS Leōn, general of the Helladikoi; deposed and mutilated; executed 705 698?705 TIBERIOS II Apsimaros, admiral of the Kybiraiotai; deposed and executed 705 705?711 IOUSTINIANOS II the Slitnosed Restored; deposed and executed 711   TIBERIOS Son of Ioustinianos II; co-ruler 705?711; murdered 920?944 RŌMANOS I Lakapēnos Son of Theophylaktos; co-ruler 919; deposed by sons, died 948   KHRISTOPHOROS Son of Rōmanos I; co-ruler 921?931 (senior co-ruler from 927) (944?945) STEPHANOS Son of Rōmanos I; co-ruler 924?945; deposed, died 967 (944?945) KŌNSTANTINOS Son of Rōmanos I; co-ruler 924?925; deposed, killed 946 959?963 RŌMANOS II Son of Kōnstantinos VII; co-ruler 945 963?1025 BASILEIOS II the Bulgar-Slayer Son of Rōmanos II; co-ruler 960 and 963?976 963?969 NIKĒPHOROS II Phōkas Son of Bardas Phōkas; married Theophanō widow of Rōmanos II; murdered by Iōannēs I 969?976 IŌANNĒS I Tzimiskēs Son of Theophilos Kourkouas by sister of Nikēphoros II; married Theodōra daughter of Kōnstantinos VII (971; 987?989)BARDAS Phōkas Son of Leōn Phōkas brother of Nikēphoros II; rebelled 971 and 987, killed in battle (976?979; 987)BARDAS Sklēros Brother of Maria wife of Iōannēs I; rebelled 976, fled to Arabs 979, captured 987, died 991 1025?1028 KŌNSTANTINOS VIII Son of Rōmanos II; co-ruler 962 1028?1041 ZŌĒ Daughter of Kōnstantinos VIII; deposed by Mikhaēl V 1028?1034 RŌMANOS III Argyropoulos Prefect of Constantinople; husband of Zōē; drowned in his pool 1034?1041 MIKHAĒL IV the Paphlagonian Married Zōē 1041?1042 MIKHAĒL V the Caulker Son of Stephanos by Maria sister of Mikhaēl IV; deposed and blinded 1042?1050 ZŌĒ Restored 1042?1055 KŌNSTANTINOS IX Monomakhos Son of Theodosios Monomakhos; married Zōē (1045?1045)GEŌRGIOS Maniakēs Rebel general in Italy; killed against Kōnstantinos IX (1047?1047)LEŌN Tornikios Rebel general in Thrace; captured and blinded 1055?1056 THEODŌRA Daughter of Kōnstantinos VIII; co-ruler 1042 1056?1057 MIKHAĒL VI Bringas the General Nominated successor by Theodōra; abdicated 1057?1059 ISAAKIOS I Komnēnos Son of Manouēl Komnēnos; rebel in Anatolia since 1057; abdicated, died 1062 1059?1067 KŌNSTANTINOS X Doukas Son of Andronikos Doukas 1067?1078 MIKHAĒL VII Doukas ParapinakēsSon of Kōnstantinos X; co-ruler c1060 and 1068?1071; deposed, died c1090 1068?1071 RŌMANOS IV Diogenēs Son of Kōnstantinos Diogenēs; married Eudoxia widow of Kōnstantinos X; captured by the Turks at Mantzikert; arrested and blinded by stepson Mikhaēl VII, died 1072  KŌNSTANTIOS Doukas Son of Kōnstantinos X; co-ruler 1067?1078; killed in battle 1081  ANDRONIKOS Doukas Son of Kōnstantinos X; co-ruler 1068??  KŌNSTANTINOS Doukas Son of Mikhaēl VII; co-ruler c1074?1078 and 1081?1090; died c1095 711?713 PHILIPPIKOS Bardanēs, son of Nikēphoros; deposed and blinded 713?715 ANASTASIOS II Artemios; imperial secretary; deposed, executed after revolt in 718 715?717 THEODOSIOS III Son of Tiberios II (?); deposed by Leōn III 717?741 LEŌN III the Syrian Konōn, general of the Anatolics (727?727) KOSMAS Rebel general of the Helladikoi; captured and executed 741?775 KŌNSTANTINOS V Kopronymos Son of Leōn III; co-ruler 720; in exile 741?743 (741?743) ARTAUASDOS Husband of Anna daughter of Leōn III; usurper in Constantinople; deposed and blinded   NIKĒPHOROS Son of Artauasdos co-ruler 742?743; deposed and blinded 775?780 LEŌN IV the Khazar Son of Kōnstantinos V; co-ruler 750 780?797 KŌNSTANTINOS VI Son of Leōn IV; co-ruler 776; deposed and blinded by mother Eirēnē, died 797 (792; 797) NIKĒPHOROS Son of Kōnstantinos V; blinded and exiled by Eirēnē, died 812/ 797?802 EIRĒNĒ Widow of Leōn IV and mother of Kōnstantinos VI; deposed, died 803 802?811 NIKĒPHOROS I the Logothete Finance minister of Eirēnē; killed against Bulgaria (803?803) BARDANĒS the Turk General of the Anatolics; rebelled; submitted to Nikēphoros I (808?808) ARSABĒR Patrician; captured by Nikēphoros I 811?811 STAURAKIOS Son of Nikēphoros I; co-ruler 803; mortally against Bulgaria, abdicated, died 812 811?813 MIKHAĒL I Rangabē Son of Theophylaktos; husband of Prokopia daughter of Nikēphoros I; abdicated, died 844   THEOPHYLAKTOS Son of Mikhaēl I; co-ruler 812?813; abdicated 813?820 LEŌN V the Armenian Son of Bardas; husband of Theodosia daughter of Arsabēr; murdered   KŌNSTANTINOS Symbatios, son of Leōn V; co-ruler 814?820; deposed and mutilated 820?829 MIKHAĒL II the Amorian General; husband of Thekla daughter of Bardanēs the Turk (820?823) THŌMAS the Slav Rebel general in Anatolia; captured and executed 829?842 THEOPHILOS Son of Mikhaēl II; co-ruler 821   KŌNSTANTINOS Son of Theophilos; co-ruler 833?835 842?867 MIKHAĒL III the DrunkardSon of Theophilos; co-ruler 840; murdered by Basileios I 867?886 BASILEIOS I the Macedonian Co-ruler 866; killed in hunting accident   KŌNSTANTINOS Symbatios, son of Basileios I; co-ruler 869?879 886?912 LEŌN VI the Wise Son of Mikhaēl III by Eudokia wife of Basileios I; co-ruler 870 912?913 ALEXANDROS Son of Basileios I; co-ruler 879 913?959 KŌNSTANTINOS VII Porphyrogenitus Son of Leōn VI; co-ruler 908 and 920?945; married Helenē daughter of Rōmanos I (1077?1078)NIKĒPHOROS Bryennios Rebel governor of Durazzo; defeated by Alexios Komnēnos 1078?1081 NIKĒPHOROS III BotaneiatēsSon of Mikhaēl Botaneiatēs; rebel general in Anatolia since 1077; deposed, died 1081 (1078?1079)NIKĒPHOROS Basilakēs Rebel governor of Durazzo (1080?1081)NIKĒPHOROS Melissēnos Rebel general in Anatolia; subdued by Alexios Komnēnos 1081?1118 ALEXIOS I Komnēnos Son of Iōannēs Komnēnos brother of Isaakios I 1118?1143 IŌANNĒS II Komnēnos Son of Alexios I; co-ruler 1092; died of infected wound   ALEXIOS Komnēnos Son of Iōannēs II; co-ruler 1123?1142 1143?1180 MANOUĒL I Komnēnos Son of Iōannēs II 1180?1183 ALEXIOS II Komnēnos Son of Manouēl I; co-ruler 1172; murdered by Andronikos I 1183?1185 ANDRONIKOS I Komnēnos Son of Isaakios Komnēnos son of Alexios I; co-ruler 1182; murdered (1184?1191)ISAAKIOS Komnēnos Grandson of Isaakios son of Iōannēs II; rebel in Cyprus, deposed by Richard I, poisoned 1185?1195 ISAAKIOS II Angelos Son of Andronikos Angelos son of Kōnstantinos by Theodōra daughter of Alexios I; deposed and blinded by brother Alexios III 1195?1203 ALEXIOS III Angelos Brother of Isaakios II; fled to Thrace, died 1210/ (1200?1200)IŌANNĒS Komnēnos the Fat Son of Alexios Axoukhēs by Maria, daughter of Alexios son of Iōannēs II; executed 1203?1204 ISAAKIOS II Angelos Restored 1203?1204 ALEXIOS IV Angelos Son of Isaakios II; deposed and murdered (1204?1204)NIKOLAOS Kanabos Rebel in Constantinople; subdued by Alexios V 1204?1205 ALEXIOS V Doukas Mourtzouphlos Husband of Eudokia daughter of Alexios III; blinded by father-in-law, executed by Latins 1205?1222 THEODŌROS I Laskaris Son of Manouēl Laskaris; husband of Anna daughter of Alexios III; crowned 1208 1222?1254 IŌANNĒS III Doukas BatatzēsSon of Basileios Batatzēs; husband of Eirēnē daughter of Theodōros I 1254?1258 THEODŌROS II Doukas Laskaris Son of Iōannēs III; co-ruler c1241 1258?1261 IŌANNĒS IV Doukas Laskaris Son of Theodōros II; deposed and blinded, died c1305 1261?1282 MIKHAĒL VIII Palaiologos Son of Andronikos Palaiologos by Theodōra daughter of Alexios Palaiologos by Eirēnē daughter of Alexios III; co-ruler ?1328 ANDRONIKOS II Palaiologos Son of Mikhaēl VIII; co-ruler 1261 (crowned 1272); deposed by grandson Andronikos III, died 1332 MIKHAĒL IX Palaiologos Son of Andronikos II; co-ruler 1281 (crowned )?1320 1328?1341ANDRONIKOS III Palaiologos Son of Mikhaēl IX; co-ruler 1308/13 1341?1376IŌANNĒS V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III; married Helenē daughter of Iōannēs VI; deposed by son Andronikos IV 1347?1354 IŌANNĒS VI Kantakouzēnos Rebel emperor in Thrace 1341?1347; abdicated, died 1383 (1354?1357)MATTHAIOS Asan Kantakouzēnos Son of Iōannēs VI; co-ruler 1353; captured by Serbs, abdicated, died 1383 1376?1379 ANDRONIKOS IV Palaiologos Son of Iōannēs V; co-ruler 1366?1373 and 1381?1385 Selymbria; usurped father; deposed 1379?1390 IŌANNĒS V Palaiologos Restored; deposed by grandson Iōannēs VII 1390?1390IŌANNĒS VII Palaiologos Son of Andronikos IV; co-ruler 1376?1379, 1385?1403 Selymbria, 1403?1408 Thessalonica ; usurped grandfather; deposed 1390?1391IŌANNĒS V Palaiologos Restored 1391?1425MANOUĒL II Palaiologos Son of Iōannēs V; co-ruler 1373?1376, 1379?1381, 1382? Thessalonica, 1385  ANDRONIKOS V Palaiologos Son of Iōannēs VII; co-ruler 1403?1407 with father at Thessalonica 1425?1448IŌANNĒS VIII Palaiologos Son of Manouēl II; co-ruler 1408 (crowned 1421) 1448?1453KŌNSTANTINOS XI Dragasēs Son of Manouēl II; killed against the Ottomans   Emperors of the Romans 307?337 CONSTANTINUS I the Great Son of Constantius I; Caesar 306   CRISPUS Son of Constantinus I; Caesar 317?326; executed by father 337?340 CONSTANTINUS II Son of Constantinus I; Caesar 317; killed against Constans 337?361 CONSTANTIUS II Son of Constantinus I; Caesar 324 337?350 CONSTANS Son of Constantinus I; Caesar 333   DALMATIUS son of Constantius I; Caesar 335?337; murdered   CONSTANTIUS GALLUS Son of Iulius Constantius son of Constantius I; Caesar 351?354; executed 361?363 IULIANUS Brother of Constantius Gallus; Caesar 355; killed against Persia 363?364 IOVIANUS Son of Varronianus 364?364 VALENTINIANUS I Son of Gratianus; resigned East to brother Valens, died 375 364?378 VALENS Brother of Valentinianus I; killed against the Visigoths (365?366) PROCOPIUS Relative of Iulianus; usurper in Constantinople; captured and executed by Valens 378?379 GRATIANUS Son of Valentinianus I; co-ruler with father 367, resigned East to Theodosius I; murdered 383 379?395 THEODOSIUS I the Great Son of Theodosius 395?408 ARCADIUS Son of Theodosius I; co-ruler 383 408?450 THEODOSIUS II the Younger Son of Arcadius; co-ruler 402; died of a fall off his horse 450?457 MARCIANUS Husband of Pulcheria daughter of Arcadius 457?474 LEO I the Butcher Officer of the general Aspar 474?474 LEO II the Little Son of Zeno by Ariadne daughter of Leo I; Caesar and co-ruler 473 474?491 ZENO Tarasius, son of Codissa; husband of Ariadne daughter of Leo I; in exile 475?476 (475?476) BASILISCUS Brother of Verina widow of Leo I; usurper in Constantinople; deposed and starved to death   MARCUS Son of Basiliscus, Caesar 475?476; deposed and starved to death   BASILISCUS Son of Armatus; Caesar 476?477

7 In the eastern empire there was only one law and it came from the emperor
set during the Crusades of the 12th century. A French village blacksmith goes to aid the city of Jerusalem in its defense against the Muslim leader Saladin, who is battling to reclaim the city from the Christians. Does a good job protraying the religious fantasim of the time. “Cesero Papas” head of state/head of church. God ordained all! When Constantine died in 337 with his heir far from Constantinople, the embalmed remains of Constantine continued to rule thru a summer, an autumn, and a winter— everyone continued to report to the corpse!( not on the test. This is red for the shock value of red)

8 In fact, since the emperor was chosen by God divine will could be expressed in many ways. All means were thus good, in particular exile in the best case, murder preceded by torture in the worst case. Of the 88 emperors having reigned from 324 (Constantin I ) to 1453 (Constantin XI Paleologist), 29 died of violent death following a plot and 13 had to be exiled, sent to a monastery. A few died in combat. Symbol of the potentially transitory character of what they had, the Byzantine emperors were given a silk crimson purse full of dust which was meant to remind them that they were only men, who, like all men would eventually become again dust.

9 Byzantium "Not since the world was made was there ever seen or won so great a treasure, or so noble or so rich, nor in the time of Alexander, nor in the time of Charlemagne, nor before, nor after, nor do I think myself that in the forty richest cities of the world had there been so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world." --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople. Fourth Crusade, sanctioned by pope Innocent III The Byzantine Empire The treasure, probably buried when Islamic forces threatened, consists of fifteen objects--ten chalices, three censers, a wine strainer, and a dove--found buried in a giant terracotta cauldron in the vicinity of the ancient town of Attarouthi, a stopping point on trade routes. They constitute a portion of the liturgical vessels normally employed in the Christian church service.

10 Byzantium has as its “iconic” images Hagia Sofia and its many church icons.

11 Map of the Byzantine Empire 565 AD
Eastern Roman Empire, c. AD 480

12 I. Constantinople 1. army followed Roman military customs
Section One: describes the Byzantine Empire from the founding of Constantinople to the Turkish conquest I. Constantinople A. Byzantium was a nexus of trading activity in the east, good harbor and was a good location for defense. Constantine chose as the site of his new capital B. modeled on Rome with many similar features, but Constantinople had a much more religious atmosphere C. Social life similar to that of Rome 1. army followed Roman military customs 2. poor people received free bread 3. circuses and chariot (other) races put on by govt. Detail of the pedestal: Theodosius I offers laurels of victory; we can see the water organ of Ctesibius, in the lower right-hand corner.

13 D. family center of social life
I Continued 4. Constantine convinced many wealthy people to move to Constantinople by offering them palaces. D. family center of social life E. From beginning Constantinople was a Christian city and was viewed as the center of the Christian empire. 1. a career in the church was considered a high goal 2. churches were the most magnificent building in the city 3. relics were placed in public monuments, (satellite views) palaces and churches 4. bodies of saints rested in beautiful shrines 5. Wealthy Byzantines formed organizations to care for the poor, the aged and the blind. F. 600,000 people lived in Constantinople during Constantine’s rule. G. Most people used Latin as the official language of govt. and business but spoke Greek among themselves H. Most called themselves Romans and became Christians. Christianity was the most important factor unifying the Byzantine Empire

14 II. Justinian I Justinian and the Byzantines Dark Ages, The
Section Two: discusses the Byzantine contributions to government and law II. Justinian I Justinian and the Byzantines Dark Ages, The Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12 Run Time: [11:25] video A. in 527 a Macedonian named Justinian came to the throne and is considered the greatest Byzantine emperor B. trained in law, music, architecture and theology. Nephew of Emperor Justin I 1. people who served under him chosen because of merit 2. controlled the army, navy, made laws, was supreme judge, 3. believed his acts and decrees were inspired by God. In 533 sent his best general, Belisarius to reconquer North Africa from the Vandals. (The Problem of Procopius) Vitale, Ravenna

15 The Byzantine Empire Writing history: Or things aren’t always what they seem! Procopius
Procopius is one of those writers that present us with the little mysteries of history. He writes several books praising the emperor and his accomplishments, then he turns around and writes The Secret History, in which he describes the reigning emperor Justinian and his empress Theodora as the most dishonorable and treacherous people on the face of the Earth, always betraying their friends and supporters and condemning innocent men and women to exile, death, or dungeon. Procopius wrote all of his works while Justinian was still on the throne in that period of time when the Eastern Roman Empire was evolving into the Byzantine Empire. He was the personal secretary of Belisarius, Justinian’s very capable and successful general who reconquered North Africa and Italy for the Roman Empire, throwing the Vandals and Ostrogoths from power in these former Roman provinces.

16 According to Procopuus’ Secret History, Justinian was perhaps possessed:
“And some of those who have been with Justinian at the palace late at night, men who were pure of spirit, have thought they saw a strange demoniac form taking his place. One man said that the Emperor suddenly rose from his throne and walked about, and indeed he was never wont to remain sitting for long, and immediately Justinian's head vanished, while the rest of his body seemed to ebb and flow; whereat the beholder stood aghast and fearful, wondering if his eyes were deceiving him. But presently he perceived the vanished head filling out and joining the body again as strangely as it had left it.[14] “ In The Secret History, Procopius describes life in the great city of Constantinople during the first half of the Sixth Century A. D. He describes the power held by Justinian and Theodora, who is not just Sly Justinian’s wife but holds imperial power as well. Procopius also writes about Belisarius and his wife Antonina. While most other sources paint a picture of the imperial couple as very capable and strong rulers, kind to their subjects on many occasions but capable of being utterly ruthless, Procopius paints Justinian and Theodora with in the blackest colors of infamy. He describes Justinian as treacherous and incapable of being faithful to any friend, bending or breaking his own laws to suit any purpose he might have.

17 He describes Belisarius as a cowardly yes-man, totally at the mercy of his own wife and the imperial couple, who manipulate and abuse him until he is of no further use of him. Other historians describe Belisarius as a strong, intelligent leader of the Roman armies and a hero to the empire. Procopius saves his most bitter invective for the two women. He openly accuses both of them of being prostitutes and goes on to provide some quite graphic descriptions of the deeds he accuses them of. He tells us that both men are completely under the power of their wives, afraid to displease them in any way.

18 The things Procopius describes in The Secret History come as a surprise to most students of history, since he writes very highly of Justinian in his other histories. Procopius wrote The History of the Vandal Wars, in which he relates how Belisarius defeated the last Vandal king in north Africa and retakes this old Roman province for the empire. His History of the Gothic Wars tells a similar tale of Belisarius’ competent generalship in the retaking of Italy from the Ostrogoths. Procopius also wrote a book about the buildings erected by Justinian in the city of Constantinople and another about the wars against the Persians.

19 Historians are still trying to guess why Procopius wrote so favorably about Justinian at first, then wrote the scandals in The Secret History, and then turned around and wrote glowing accounts of Justinian’s accomplishments again. Obviously, this work could not be published during the reign of Justinian and was only published after A. D. 535, the year in which both Justinian and Procopius died.

20 panegyric pan·e·gyr·ic –noun 1. a lofty oration or writing in praise of a person or thing; eulogy. 2. formal or elaborate praise. The writing, style of this period in history is full of exaggeration and hyperbole. Procopius wrote in the Greek used by most educated people and writers of the late Roman Empire. The writing is filled with heroic sounding statements, lofty proclamations, and an incredible amount of flattering language in descriptions of those in power An account written in this style was known as a panegyric. Other aspects of contemporary writing included language that totally vilifies anyone opposed to the writers point of view or who is perceived as an enemy of the person whom the writer is flattering in his account. There is also a tendency to be quite vague about actual events while very vividly painting either a saintly or demonic picture of people. It is a style also used by the late Roman poet Claudian and others and causes no small amount of confusion for modern historians.

21 II. Continued “My opinion is that now is a poor time for flight,…”115 Theodora to Justinian History of the Later Roman Empire by J. B. Bury C. Theodora 1. family was poor, worked as an actress (?)reading Procopius 2. Justinian abolished the law prohibiting upper and lower class citizens from marrying Theodora becomes empress 3. helped Justinian run the government and became his most influential adviser. When revolt threatened his best advice came from Theodora 4. women gain more rights with her urging (a.) women could own land equal to their dowry (b.) widow could raise and support her young without govt. interference (c.) Theodora urges Justinian to suppress a rebellion in Constantinople (The Nika Revolt) reading details (1.) 30,000 rebels killed (2.) may 542 a plague (reading) raged for 4 months killing thousands of people a day (3.) Justinian survives plague, but Theodora runs govt. while he is ill

22 II. Cont. D. Law and Public Works
TRIBONIAN c Byzantine Scholar Tribonian was born in Turkey. As legal adviser to the emperor Justinian Tribonian codified Roman law, which became the basis for much European jurisprudence ('Corpus juris civilis') In addition he supervised the writing of the 'Institutiones', a legal handbook, by the law teachers Dorotheus and Theophilus 1. Justinian chose 10 men to work out a simpler system of laws. 2. Group headed by scholar Tribonian

23 II. Cont. 3. This code becomes known as the Justinian Code
(a.) provides a summary of Roman legal systems in every western country. 4. built churches, bridges, monasteries and forums 5. Justinain builds Hagia Sophia Places to Locate: Hagia Sophia (a.) figures of Justinian and Theodora lined the walls From the Primary Chronicle “…The Greeks led us to the building where they worship their God an we knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth. For on earth there is no such splendor or such beauty, and were at a loss to describe it. We only know that God dwells among men and we can not forget that beauty” Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Mosaic of the Archangel Gabriel, southern bema arch.

24 II. more (b.) impressive huge dome rose high over central part of church (c.) thousands of candles lit the church at night and served as a beacon (d.) called St. Sophia and served as a religious center for 900 years

25 II. Still more. E. Conquest
Byzantine ship using Greek fire in the late 11th century. E. Conquest 1. Justinian reunites eastern and western parts of the empire by defeating the German kingdoms of the West & North Africa 2. appoints general Belisarius (reading) to lead the Byzantine army 3. Balearics battle maps reorganizes the army around loyal, heavily armed cavalry soldiers 4. develops new tactics 5. Byzantine navy developed Greek fire as a chemical weapon (reading slide 26) 6. Byzantines were able to control more of the Mediterranean and win back much of Italy and North Africa. 7. defeat the Persians and secure borders of eastern empire

26 Chapter 21 reading The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine ship using Greek fire in the late 11th century. 1. In a world where new warfare technology is adopted so quickly by so many nations, it’s hard to imagine that the method of creating a weapon as devastating as Greek Fire would be lost to the passage of time. But the recipe for this weapon was so closely guarded that within only 50 years of its invention, the knowledge was lost even to the original owners.

27 While incendiary weapons had been in use for centuries (petroleum and sulfur had both been in use since the early days of the Christians) Greek fire was much, much more potent. Very similar to our modern napalm, it would adhere to surfaces, ignite upon contact, and water alone would not extinguish its flames.

28 3. The term “Greek Fire” was not attributed to the concoction until the time of the European Crusades. Some of the original names it was known by include “liquid fire”, “marine fire”, “artificial fire” and “Roman fire”. The latter was most probably due to the fact that the Muslims (against whom the weapon was most commonly used) believed the Byzantines to be Roman rather than Greek.

29 4. Greek Fire is believed to have been created in the seventh century (613 AD) by a Syrian engineer named Kallinikos (or Callinicus). The weapon was first used by the Byzantine Navy, and the most common method of deployment was to emit the formula through a large bronze tube onto enemy ships. Usually the mixture would be stored in heated, pressurized barrels and projected through the tube by some sort of pump while the operators were sheltered behind large iron shields.

30 5. The Byzantines used Greek Fire rarely, presumably out of fear that the secret mixture might fall into enemy hands. This was probably justifiable. The widespread usage of Greek Fire would be a far greater loss to the Byzantines then the loss of a single battle.

31 6. There are however two known incidents of the Byzantines using this weapon. In 678 they utterly destroyed a Muslim fleet (it is believed over 30,000 men were lost) and also in , when Caliph Suleiman attacked Constantinople. Most of the Muslim fleet was once again destroyed by Greek Fire, and the Caliph was ultimately forced to flee. As there is virtually no documentation of its usage after this time by the Byzantines, it is generally believed (partially due to the poor performance of the Byzantine fleets after this date) that it was during this era that the secrets of creating Greek Fire were lost.

32 While there has been much speculation involved in preparation of Greek Fire, no one to date has been able to successfully recreate this concoction. The closest would be the Arabian armies, who eventually created their own version (opinions differ as to exactly when this took place, presumably sometime between the mid-seventh century and the early tenth), but the formula was inexact and, compared to the original Byzantine substance, was relatively weak. This did not stop it from being one of the most devastating weapons of the era.

33 The Arabs used the Greek Fire in very effective ways; much like the Byzantines, they used brass tubes aboard ships and upon castle walls. They also filled small glass jars with the substance, allowing them to hurl it by hand at their opponents. Arrows and spears would be used to carry the mixture further onto the battlefield and gigantic war engines could be used to hurl large amounts of the substance over a castle wall.

34 “It happened one night, whilst we were keeping night-watch over the tortoise- towers, that they brought up against us an engine called a perronel, (which they had not done before) and filled the sling of the engine with Greek fire. When that good knight, Lord Walter of Cureil, who was with me, saw this, he spoke to us as follows: “Sirs, we are in the greatest peril that we have ever yet been In. For, if they set fire to our turrets and shelters, we are lost and burnt; and if, again, we desert our defenses, which have been entrusted to us, we are disgraced; so none can deliver us from this peril save God alone. My opinion and advice therefore is: that every time they hurl the fire at us, we go down on our elbows and knees, and beseech Our Lord to save us from this danger.” “So soon as they flung the first shot, we went down on our elbows and knees, as he had instructed us; and their first shot passed between the two turrets, and lodged just in front of us, where they had been raising the dam. Our firemen were all ready to put out the fire; and the Saracens, not being able to aim straight at them, on account of the two pent-house wings which the King had made, shot straight up into the clouds, so that the fire-darts fell right on top of them.” “This was the fashion of the Greek fire: it came on as broad in front as a vinegar cask, and the tail of fire that trailed behind it was as big as a great spear; and ft made such a noise as it came, that it sounded like the thunder of heaven. It looked like a dragon flying through the air. Such a bright light did ft cast, that one could see all over the camp as though ft were day, by reason of the great mass of fire, and the brilliance of the light that ft shed.” “Thrice that night they hurled the Greek fire at us, and four times shot ft from the tourniquet cross-bow.” The Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville, a thirteenth century French nobleman, include these observations of Greek Fire during the seventh Crusade:

35 Beyond the physical dangers of Greek Fire, this excerpt gives us an idea of its potency as a psychological weapon. The horrors of watching your comrades burn to death must have been a shattering blow to many a soldier. Many men were known to simply flee their posts rather than face the flames. However, as devastating as Greek Fire might have been, there were some methods of combating it; as water alone was largely ineffective, common defenses included sand, vinegar and urine.

36 As you weigh your options, consider:
the advantages of diplomacy over war new diplomatic strategies to stop the coming attack circumstances that might convince you to recommend war

37 Section Three: discusses the effects of Orthodox Christianity on Byzantine and eastern European culture. III. The Church A. Church and government operated as one in Byzantine empire B. Emperor head of church and govt. 1. Leader of church in Constantinople called the Patriarch and was chosen by emperor 2. Under Patriarch were metropolitans in charge of empires important areas 3. bishops and priests (a.) most priests were married (b.) all higher church officials were not 4. monasteries ran hospitals, schools for needy children 5. monasteries sent missionaries, translated the bible 6. Cyril gave Slaves a new alphabet based on Greek alphabet called the Cyrillic alphabet "Saints Cyril and Methodius holding Cyrillic alphabet,"

38 III. Cont. C. Religion important to the Byzantines
year debate over icons and their use in worship Terms to Learn: Icon People to Know: Leo III Emperor Leo III ordered a stop to the use of icons (religious images) in religious worship 3. in 843 emperor reverses decision and icons were used 4. When Leo did away with icons the Pope in Rome declared the Leo and his supporters were no longer Church members. 5. The leader of the church in Byzantine was the Patriarch. The Byzantine Patriarch refused to recognize the Pope as head of the Christian Church. As a result, Pope breaks ties with Byzantine and turns to Frankish kings for protection & crowns Charlemagne “Emperor of the Romans” 6. In 1054 Eastern and Western Church break apart

39 Section Four: traces the decline of the Byzantine Empire
IV. Decline of the Empire A. Byzantine Empire lasted 1,100 years B. Preserved Greek culture and Roman law C. Spread Christianity east D. Helped growth of trade E. Empire changes policy of land for service. farmers found little reason to remain loyal after the policy change F. Vikings conquer lands in southern Italy in 1080 G. in exchange for Venetian help defeating Vikings the emperor gave them the right to do business tax-free in all empire’s cities and they took over trade using their own ships in the 11th century. 1. loss of income Byzantine Empire, c. 867 AD

40 Run Time: [10:44] Watch as the Muslim Sultan Mehmed II conquers Constantinople. He built a Mosque that became the inspiration for all future Mosques.

41 On 5 April, he laid siege to Constantinople with an army numbering
80,000 to 200,000 men. The city was defended by an army of 7,000 of whom 2,000 were foreigners. IV. Cont. Byzantium in 1453 H. Christians from the West and Muslims from east attack the empire I. Turkish armies attack Constantinople in 1453 and (a.) conquer Orban the Byzantines Mehmed II leading the Ottoman army as it marches from Edirne to start the siege of Constantinople, transporting the Great Turkish Bombardment equipment The Hungarian Cannon, named after the engineer Orban from Hungary who cast the gun for the Ottoman besiegers of Constantinople. Today it belongs to the British Royal Armouries collection. Mehmed II

42 Pick one of the following essay questions to prepare for tomorrow’s test.
Write an essay explaining the reasons behind the separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church in 1054. Explain why Justinian I is considered to be the greatest Byzantine emperor. Explain why the Roman Empire in the east was able to survive long after the empire in the west fell.

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