2 Byzantium – The “New Rome” Before the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed in the ___ century AD, Constantine moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium on the ____________in 330 AD. He renamed the city Constantinople. Why?-Due the difficulty of communication between the East and West, and the growing difference in wealth and power, the two parts were officially divided in 395 AD.
4 Justinian – Regaining the Glory of Rome Justinian was Emperor of Byzantium from ADEmperors in the East continued to see themselves as the true Roman emperors, and in 533 AD, Justinian decided to reclaim lost lands to the West.
5 Justinian sent his best general, Belisarius, to take North Africa from the ___________, and two years later, Belisarius took Rome itself from the ________________. Over the next 16 years, Justinian’s armies won nearly all of Italy and parts of southern Spain.
7 Power of Byzantine Emperors Compare to Romans –Lived under constant risk of assassination (29 of the 88 emperors were murdered, while 13 others abandoned the throne to live in monasteries)Ruled with Absolute Power over state AND church – they appointed and dismissed bishops at willOther basic differences from Roman peopleGreekEastern branch of Church
8 Justinian’s CodeFrom , Justinian had a panel of 10 legal experts review more than 400 years of Roman laws to create a simple, uniform code of law for Byzantium.Justinian’s Code, as the panel’s work came to be known, would run the empire for the next 900 years. It consisted of 4 great works –The Code : 5,000 Roman laws chosen for use in ByzantiumThe Digest: Summarized opinions of Roman legal thinkers on the lawsThe Institutes: Textbook for law studentsThe Novellae: (New Laws) passed after 534
9 Theodora From common actress to wife of the Emperor Justinian Helped crush the Nika Rebellion of 532 BCResponsible for reforms in Justinian’s Code?
11 What structures in the Great Palace complex above can you identify What structures in the Great Palace complex above can you identify? Comparisons to Rome?Royal PalaceHippodromeSea WallAugusteumHagia Sophia
12 Hagia Sophia - Roman Influences? - What other influences do you see?
13 Byzantine Christian and later Islamic Influences
14 The Schism of 1054Christianity splits into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox What factors led to the schism?Pope vs. EmperorPope vs. Patriarchs todayLatin vs. Greek or vernacularMarriage of priestsDivorcePope Benedict XVI shakes hands with Theophilos III at the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Israel in 2009.14
15 Orthodox Christianity Today What observations can you make about this map of Eastern Europe?Catholic West, other Catholic nations like france not shaded. Also Protestant regions like Germany.Schism was before Reformation.Spread of Islam into “Istanbul”. Both other religions challenged Orthodox Byzantium.Orthodox Christianity spread with Byzantine missionaries north into Slavic Russia. St. Cyril designed the Cyrillic alphabet for the Slavs.
17 Cyrillic alphabet with English transliteration in parentheses Named for St. Cyril (9th century Greek missionary in Russia)
18 Byzantine Icons Sacred Images of Christ, Virgin Mary, or Saints Range in size and formBelieved to allow direct communication with the sacred figurePendant Icon -Details of facial features are worn away - Why?
19 Virgin Mary 2-sided pendant Saint Demetrios - Byzantine Military Saint How might this icon have been used?Virgin Mary2-sided pendant
20 What was Iconoclasm? Source of Debate? Byzantine emperors show independence from Western Church( )Iconoclasm fails, but differences grow between East and West.The Old Testament prohibits worshipping “graven images”