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Byzantium – The “New Rome”

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2 Byzantium – The “New Rome”
Before the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed in the ___ century AD, Constantine moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium on the ____________in 330 AD. He renamed the city Constantinople. Why? - Due the difficulty of communication between the East and West, and the growing difference in wealth and power, the two parts were officially divided in 395 AD.


4 Justinian – Regaining the Glory of Rome
Justinian was Emperor of Byzantium from AD Emperors in the East continued to see themselves as the true Roman emperors, and in 533 AD, Justinian decided to reclaim lost lands to the West.

5 Justinian sent his best general, Belisarius, to take North Africa from the ___________, and two years later, Belisarius took Rome itself from the ________________. Over the next 16 years, Justinian’s armies won nearly all of Italy and parts of southern Spain.


7 Power of Byzantine Emperors
Compare to Romans – Lived under constant risk of assassination (29 of the 88 emperors were murdered, while 13 others abandoned the throne to live in monasteries) Ruled with Absolute Power over state AND church – they appointed and dismissed bishops at will Other basic differences from Roman people Greek Eastern branch of Church

8 Justinian’s Code From , Justinian had a panel of 10 legal experts review more than 400 years of Roman laws to create a simple, uniform code of law for Byzantium. Justinian’s Code, as the panel’s work came to be known, would run the empire for the next 900 years. It consisted of 4 great works – The Code : 5,000 Roman laws chosen for use in Byzantium The Digest: Summarized opinions of Roman legal thinkers on the laws The Institutes: Textbook for law students The Novellae: (New Laws) passed after 534

9 Theodora From common actress to wife of the Emperor Justinian
Helped crush the Nika Rebellion of 532 BC Responsible for reforms in Justinian’s Code?

10 Defenses Mese Forums Palace Complex

11 What structures in the Great Palace complex above can you identify
What structures in the Great Palace complex above can you identify? Comparisons to Rome? Royal Palace Hippodrome Sea Wall Augusteum Hagia Sophia

12 Hagia Sophia - Roman Influences?
- What other influences do you see?

13 Byzantine Christian and later Islamic Influences

14 The Schism of 1054 Christianity splits into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox What factors led to the schism? Pope vs. Emperor Pope vs. Patriarchs today Latin vs. Greek or vernacular Marriage of priests Divorce Pope Benedict XVI shakes hands with Theophilos III at the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Israel in 2009. 14

15 Orthodox Christianity Today
What observations can you make about this map of Eastern Europe? Catholic West, other Catholic nations like france not shaded. Also Protestant regions like Germany. Schism was before Reformation. Spread of Islam into “Istanbul”. Both other religions challenged Orthodox Byzantium. Orthodox Christianity spread with Byzantine missionaries north into Slavic Russia. St. Cyril designed the Cyrillic alphabet for the Slavs.

16 ← Map of the Byzantine Empire 565 AD

17 Cyrillic alphabet with English transliteration in parentheses
Named for St. Cyril (9th century Greek missionary in Russia)

18 Byzantine Icons Sacred Images of Christ, Virgin Mary, or Saints
Range in size and form Believed to allow direct communication with the sacred figure Pendant Icon - Details of facial features are worn away - Why?

19 Virgin Mary 2-sided pendant Saint Demetrios - Byzantine Military Saint
How might this icon have been used? Virgin Mary 2-sided pendant

20 What was Iconoclasm? Source of Debate?
Byzantine emperors show independence from Western Church ( ) Iconoclasm fails, but differences grow between East and West. The Old Testament prohibits worshipping “graven images”

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