Presentation on theme: "Constantinople21 - 1 The Byzantine Empire survived in the East because: 1. Christianity united the people. 2.The city of Constantinople was a fortress."— Presentation transcript:
Constantinople The Byzantine Empire survived in the East because: 1. Christianity united the people. 2.The city of Constantinople was a fortress. Soldiers could be stationed anywhere in the empire. 3.It was wealthy. It could support a large population and could afford to pay off invaders. Trade influenced the selection of Constantinople as capital because: 1.It was on the waterway between the Black and Aegean Seas. It was the crossroad of trading between Europe and Asia. 2.Its harbor offered a safe haven for ships. 3.Important east-west land route went through Byzantium.
Constantinople was easy to defend because: 1.It was built on a peninsula. The sea protected it on 3 sides. 2.A huge wall protected it on the 4 th side. 3.A great chain was strung across the harbor. Christian values were seen in the social life of Byzantium in the following ways: 1.Church officials were consulted about daily issues. 2.There were many churches throughout the city. 3.Church service was an important goal. 4.Relics were placed in public monuments. 5.People joined organizations to help the unfortunate.
Comparison of Rome and Constantinople ALIKE DIFFERENT Buildings used Roman style architecture Built on 7 hills Both believed in the value of trade Government practices Oval arenas Family was the center of social life Narrow streets and crowded apartments Strong military Wealthy lived on estates Location – Constantinople was built on a peninsula; Rome was founded inland. Constantinople was a Christian city; Rome was polytheistic. Constantinople was in the East; Rome was in the West. Relics and icons were used in worship in Constantinople; Romans used statues to honor their gods.
Justinian I 21-2 The attributes that made Justinian a great Byzantine emperor were: 1.He proved his leadership capabilities as a general in the army. 2.He was well-trained. 3.He was well-educated. 4.He chose his advisors for their ability, not their social class. Theodora was able to secure women’s rights by: 1.Seeing that wives were given land equal to the amount of the dowry. 2.She had the law that forbid marriages between different classes abolished. 3.Keeping widowed wives off government support. 4.She urged Justinian to fight during the Nika Rebellion.
Justinian created a code of laws: 1.Tribonian and 10 men traveled throughout the empire gathering all laws. (Spain, Germany, Italy, Egypt, Russia, Persia, Greece, etc.) 2.He created a general set of laws that would apply throughout the empire. Justinian made the following accomplishments in the field of public works: 1.He built churches, bridges, monasteries, forums and roads. 2.The Hagia Sophia was constructed. It meant the “Church of Holy Wisdom” The Byzantines gained control of the east because: 1.Belisarius was hired to re- organize the army and navy. 2.They had the secret of “Greek fire”.
Justinian and Theodora
The Church The Byzantine church was instrumental in Constantinople’s organization. 1.They worked closely together. 2.The Emperor was the head of the government and Church. 3.Emperor chose patriarch who appointed the metropolitans under them were the bishops, priests and missionaries. Monasteries and missionaries played a role in the Byzantine Empire. 1.They helped the poor and ran hospitals and schools. 2.They were sent to help keep the peace. 3.They translated the Bible and church services into native languages. 4.Cyril gave the Slavs a new alphabet.
A problem over icons arose because: 1.The Byzantine emperor wanted to end the use of them because they thought it was idol worship forbidden by God. 2.They covered the walls of the Byzantine churches. 3.People believed they worked miracles. A split occurred between Western and Eastern Christianity because: 1.Emperor Leo III ordered a stop to the use of icons. 2.In the West, few people could read. Clergy used images to explain their teachings. 3.In 1054, the Pope and Leo broke ties. 4.It became known as “The Great Schism”.
Decline of the Empire Some achievements of the Byzantines during their 1100 years in power were: 1.The capital of Constantinople was the largest, richest and most beautiful city in Europe. 2.Its people were the most educated and creative. 3.They preserved Greek culture. 4.They preserved Roman law. 5.They spread Christianity to the East. 6.They helped the growth of trade. 7.New techniques in art and architecture were used. There were 3 reasons leading to the downfall of the Byzantine Empire: 1.Farmers were no longer given land to join the army. They felt there was no reason to remain loyal to the Empire. 2.Vikings attacked Byzantine lands. When the Venetian navy helped out, Venetian merchants were given right to tax-free business throughout the empire. Much income was lost. 3.Christians and Muslims attacked the empire and took land. Turkish armies with guns and gunpowder conquered Constantinople.