Presentation on theme: "Debate. Inductive Reasoning When you start with a probable truth, and seek evidence to support it. Most scientific theories are inductive. Evidence is."— Presentation transcript:
Inductive Reasoning When you start with a probable truth, and seek evidence to support it. Most scientific theories are inductive. Evidence is needed to make this argument.
Deductive Reasoning “Top-down logic” The truth is determined by eliminating all other possibilities. State two facts, and a conclusion. – All men are mortal; Mr. Vititow is a man, therefore he is mortal.
Argument Claim Evidence an argument is an attempt to persuade someone of something, by giving reasons for accepting a particular conclusion
Defeating arguments Challenge the validity of an argument. Deductive arguments can be invalid, and a counter argument made by showing how the two premises (all men are mortal; Mr. Vititow is a man) can lead to a different conclusion. Premises are often based on assumptions. Ask yourself what assumptions your opponents argument is based. This is the style of attack used by Abraham Lincoln!
Defeat this argument! Slaves sing and whistle while they work. People who are happy sing and whistle. Slaves are happy.
Winning with Persuasion Know your audience!! Appeal to – Emotion – Logic – beliefs or ideals
Winning? Seek truth, not victory. Challenge yourself – argue the opposite of what you believe is true, and argue with conviction! Argument is not a personal attack. – Don’t use put-downs (or related things) – Don’t boast (or do related things)