Presentation on theme: "Argument: Ethos, Pathos, Logos Mr. Dison English 100."— Presentation transcript:
Argument: Ethos, Pathos, Logos Mr. Dison English 100
Introduction to Argument All arguments must contain two parts: 1.Claim 2.Support (QA Chapter 5, pg. 84)
Introduction to Argument CLAIM: States the issue and takes a position on a debatable topic (usually takes the form of a THESIS STATEMENT in a written argument) SUPPORT: Facts, evidence, reasons, examples, etc. put together w/ logical reasoning and critical thinking
Introduction to Argument Develop and refine your thesis/argument. Do this by asking yourself questions about your chosen topic. (?) Using precise language and establishing a clear position will help both you and your readers. (?) STOP! QA Ex. 5-1, pg. 86
Introduction to Argument Persuasive Appeals: Ethos - Establishes the writer/speaker as a credible/(ethical or moral) person. Pathos - Appeals to an audience’s values and beliefs through emotion/empathy. Logos - The use of sound reasoning or logic.
Examples Ethos - “I am a husband, a father, and a taxpayer. I have served on the school board for 20 years. I deserve your vote for city council.” Such an appeal attempts to persuade by calling attention to the writer’s/speaker’s character. It says in effect: I’m a great person so you should believe what I’m telling you. Ethos does not concern the veracity of the argument, only its appeal. (I am a credible speaker.) (?)
Examples Pathos - “ Government-run healthcare will have ‘death squads’ to decide which citizens will live and which will die.” Such an appeal attempts to persuade by stirring the emotions of the audience and attempts to create any number of emotions like fear, sadness, contentment, joy, and pride. Pathos does not concern the veracity of the argument, only its appeal. (QA pg. 88) (?)
Examples Logos - “All humans are mortal. You are a human. Therefore, you are mortal.” This is called a syllogism. Logical arguments take this form through the use of rhetorical devices like process analysis, comparison/contrast, cause/effect, etc. (?)
Examples Logos - “Some politicians are corrupt. Therefore, Senator Jones may be corrupt.” This is called an enthymeme. It is like a syllogism but the conclusion is based on inference rather than evidence. The syllogism leads to a necessary conclusion from universally true premises, and the enthymeme leads to a tentative conclusion from probable premises.
Toulmin Model Read section 5f in your QA (pg. 89) Make sure you have a copy of the Toulmin Model handout. STOP! QA Ex. 5-2, pg. 89-90 STOP! Read essay in QA pg. 95-99 Pick out all support/evidence used and note in margins what argument style is being used.