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define genetic engineering

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Presentation on theme: "define genetic engineering"— Presentation transcript:

1 define genetic engineering
the transfer of gene(s) from one organism to another if genes are transferred between different species – a genetically modified organism (GMO) or transgenic organism is produced state the advantages of genetic engineering over artificial selection new varieties produced in one generation element of chance removed allows transfer of genes between species

2 describe two methods of locating genes on a chromosome
banding patterns when stained chromosomes show a unique pattern of light and dark bands by comparing the banding pattern on normal and mutated chromosomes it is possible to identify the location of genes responsible for a specific characteristic

3 gene probes a gene probe is a small piece of single-stranded DNA or RNA with a base sequence complementary to that of the gene being sought a radioactive or luminescent chemical (marker) is attached the DNA containing the desired gene is cut-up into small fragments using enzymes it is then converted into single-strand format using chemical or heat treatment the gene probe is then added and it attaches to the DNA fragment containing the desired gene

4 state the name and function of the enzymes involved in genetic engineering
endonuclease enzymes are used to cut the DNA into fragments ligase enzymes are used to seal new gene(s) into the genome of another organism

5 sequence the stages involved in genetic engineering
(transfer of the human insulin gene to the E. coli bacterium) human DNA cut into fragments by an endonuclease enzyme plasmids (small rings of DNA) removed from E. coli – all contain gene for resistance to an antibiotic plasmids cut open using same endonuclease enzyme human DNA fragments inserted into plasmids using a ligase enzyme recombinant plasmids mixed with E. coli cells – only some take-up a plasmid E. coli grown on agar containing antibiotic – those that have not taken-up a plasmid killed gene probe added to identify E. coli colony that contains plasmid with human insulin gene E. coli grown in a fermenter – produce human insulin insulin purified and made available to diabetics Beads demo

6 name examples of GMOs and their products / characteristics
E. Coli – produce insulin, human growth hormone sheep – factor VIII blood-clotting protein produced in their milk crop plants – improved yields, enhanced disease resistance, herbicide resistance, increased nutritional value, wider environmental tolerance discuss the potential positive and negative impacts of genetic engineering Food future booklets Animal farm dvd ppq


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