Presentation on theme: "The Reformation and Exploration. The Reformation Overview: A religious revolution, grounded in the Christian Humanism of Northern Europe during the 15."— Presentation transcript:
The Reformation Overview: A religious revolution, grounded in the Christian Humanism of Northern Europe during the 15 th century, occurred during the 1500s. Those who wished to reform the Catholic Church soon realized that more drastic measures were necessary. Thus, Protestant religious movements (e.g., Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, etc.) sought to break away from the Church. Aside from the obvious religious effect of forever splitting the Christian religion into numerous sects, the Reformation also had profound political and social effects on Europe.
Martin Luther and the German Reformation Main criticism = indulgences (but, also criticized other materialistic and secular practices of the Catholic Church: benefice system, concubinage, immunity of place, immunity of person, etc.) Justification by faith Bible as the ultimate authority (priesthood of all believers) Peasant Revolt (depended on Luther's teachings) Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire Diet of Worms (Edict of Worms) New answers to old questions (Augsburg Confession) – Best form of Christian living? – All vocations pleasing to God – What is the Church? – Priesthood of ALL believers – What is the ultimate source of religious authority? - Bible – Salvation? – Faith alone – Eucharist - Transubstantiation vs. Consubstantiation vs. Memorial Peace of Augsburg (1555) – cuius regio, eius religio
Other Protestant Religions Zwingli scripture test Marbourg Colloquy Calvin (Calvinism) – predestination – Geneva Anglicanism – Henry VIII – Act of Supremacy (went through Parliament) – Sir Thomas More – Edward VI – Mary I – More "Radical" Protestant Movements Anabaptism (complete separation of Church and State) Antitrinitarians John Knox takes Calvinism to Scotland
Counter Reformation: The RCC Fights Back Jesuits (Ignatious Loyola) Ursulines The Roman Inquisition Index of Prohibited Books Council of Trent (1563) Political and Economic Causes of the Reformation (German princes support M.L. to gain control of money) Political and Social Effects of the Reformation (women, peasants)
Art of the Reformation Protestants – Woodcuts of Luther – Simplistic form of art and architecture – Dutch artist - Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch Baroque/Dutch Golden Age – Printing Press helped spread writings of Luther and other reformers. Baroque Art – Grandiose, exuberant, awe-inspiring form of art – Chiraroscuro – light and dark – Popular in most Catholic countries. Started in Italy in late 16 th century and spread. Popular style for next 150 years. – Peter Paul Reubens The Landing of Marie de Medici at Marseilles – Gianlorenzo Bernini Ecstasy of Saint Theresa Throne of Saint Peter Colonnade outside of Saint Peter’s Basilica – Artemesia Gentileschi Judith Beheading Holofernes
The Landing of Marie de Medicis at Marseilles The Throne of St. Peter Ecstasy of St. Theresa Portion of Colonnade outside St. Peter’s Basilica
The Wars of Religion Overview: During the second half of the 16 th century, the Wars of Religion were fought primarily over Calvinist rights. Lutheranism was officially accepted under the Peace of Augsburg, but Calvinism was still an illegal religion. Often, the wars were just as political as they were religious. Many nobles turned to Calvinism to separate themselves from Catholic monarchs.
The Wars of Religion General Terms and Movements – politique – Baroque Art French Wars of Religioun – Huguenots – St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre – Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes (1598)
The Wars of Religion The Dutch Revolt (Revolt in the Netherlands) – Philip II – William of Orange (the Silent) England v. Spain – Elizabeth I Act of Supremacy & Act of Uniformity – Spanish Armada (1588)
Height of Habsburg Power (Political) Overview: During the first half of the 16 th century, Charles V ruled over a kingdom that included Spain and the Eastern Habsburg lands (Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary). This was the only time the two kingdoms would be joined. Upon retiring, Charles left SP to his son, Philip II, and the Eastern Lands to his brother, Ferdinand I. Golden Age of Spain – 16 th C Spanish conquest and colonization of the New World
Beginnings of the Commercial Revolution and Mercantilism (Econ) Overview: During the first half of the 16 th century, Charles V ruled over a kingdom that included Spain and the Eastern Habsburg lands (Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary). This was the only time the two kingdoms would be joined. Upon retiring, Charles left SP to his son, Philip II, and the Eastern Lands to his brother, Ferdinand I. Golden Age of Spain – 16 th Century Spanish conquest and colonization of the New World – Colombian Exchange Exploration Continues – Conquest and Colonization of the Americas – England and France join the race for colonies – Joint stock companies – Price Revolution