Presentation on theme: "Renaissance Review THE LAST SUPPER thname=/atschool/worldhistory/interactive_maps/&f ilename=WH07Y02010.swf&w=760&h=460."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance Review THE LAST SUPPER thname=/atschool/worldhistory/interactive_maps/&f ilename=WH07Y02010.swf&w=760&h=460 thname=/atschool/worldhistory/interactive_maps/&f ilename=WH07Y02010.swf&w=760&h=460 MAP OF EUROPE thname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_guided_tours/ &filename=WH07A00091.swf&w=760&h=460 thname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_guided_tours/ &filename=WH07A00091.swf&w=760&h=460
Protestant Reformation The call for church reform that eventually unleashed forces that would shatter Christian unity. This movement is known as the Protestant Reformation.
Background Northern Europeans faced uncertainty. Most people were poor and life could be violent. Wealth was distributed unequally. The printing press spread Renaissance humanist ideas such as a return to classical education and an emphasis on social reform. People wanted a society that made more sense to them. The church was central in their lives and they looked to change the church to change their lives.
Church Abuses Popes lived lavish lives, were patrons of the arts, and hired artists to beautify churches. They increased fees for services such as marriages and baptisms. They sold indulgences, a lessoning of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory.
Early Revolts Against the Church Humanist Erasmus urged a return to the simple ways of the Christian church and stressed Bible study. In the early 1300s, John Wycliffe launched a systematic attack against the church using sermons and writings to call for change. Jan Hus led a reform movement and was executed.
Checkpoint! What factors set the stage for the Protestant Reformation?
Martin Luther In 1517, this German monk and professor of theology triggered the revolt against the Church. Johann Tetzel offered indulgences from a pulpit in Wittenberg, Germany to anyone willing to give money toward the rebuilding of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome. Luther saw this as the final outrage because it meant that poor people could not get into heaven.
95 Theses Luther wrote the 95 Theses (arguments) against indulgences. Luther said that indulgences had no basis in in the Bible and that the Pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory and that Christians could be saved only through faith.
Spread of the Reformation Luther’s 95 Theses were printed and distributed across Europe and they started a furious debate. The Church asked Luther to recant or give up his views. Luther refused—he developed radical new doctrines. He urged Christians to reject the authority of Rome. He said the Church could only be reformed by secular authorities.
Diet of Worms 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. 1522, Charles V (the new Holy Roman Emperor) summoned Luther to a diet (assembly of German princes) at the city of Worms. Charles V ordered Luther to give up his writings. Luther refused. Charles V ordered his books to be destroyed.
Diet of Worms, Cont. Charles declared Luther an outlaw and forbade anyone to give him food or shelter. Luther had many supporters and he was hailed as a hero. His followers renounced the authority of the Pope.
Lutheranism’s beliefs Salvation is achieved through faith. Some sacraments were accepted by only God can erase sins, not rituals. Elected councils are at the head of the Church. The bible alone is the source of truth. People should read and interpret the Bible for themselves. Indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints were banned. Sermon emphasized. Clergy permitted to marry.
Ideas Spread Luther said that “Printing was God’s highest act of grace.” By 1530, Lutherans were using the name Protestant, for those who “protested” Papal authority. Many people saw this as the answer to Church corruption. Some German priests saw it as a way to increase their authority. Some were tired of giving German money to the clergy in Italy.
Peasants’ Revolt Many peasants supported Luther’s ideas. They hoped to gain his support for social and economic change. In 1524, a Peasants’ Revolt erupted across Germany. The rebels called for an end to serfdom and demanded change in their harsh lives. Luther did not support the revolt. It was suppressed and 10s of 1000s were killed and 1000s more were homeless.
Peace of Augsburg Signed in 1555 by Charles V, it allowed each Lutheran prince to decide which religion—Catholic or Lutheran—would be followed in his lands. Most northern German states chose Lutheranism while the southern German states remained Catholic.
Checkpoint! How did Luther’s teachings affect people and society in Northern Europe?
Switzerland’s Reformation Swiss reformers also challenged the Catholic Church. John Calvin was a reformer who profoundly affected the direction of the Reformation. He supported Luther’s ideas but had some of his own, too. He preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
Calvinism To Calvinists, the world was divided into two kinds of people—saints and sinners. Calvinists tried to live like saints. 1541, Protestants in Geneva asked Calvin to lead their community. Calvin set up a theocracy, or government run by the church leaders. Calvinists stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and morality.
Calvinism, Cont. Citizens faced fines or other harsher punishments for offenses such as fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancing. To many Protestants, Calvinist Geneva seemed like a model community.
Social and Religious Changes By the late 1500s, Calvinism has spread to Germany, France, Netherlands, England, and Scotland. This new challenge to the Roman Catholic Church set off bloody wars of religion across Europe. Fighting occurred between Catholics and Lutherans, and Calvinists and Catholics. Some people preached in the countryside to avoid persecution. English Calvinists sailed to the Americas in the early 1600s to avoid persecution at home. In Scotland, a Calvinist preacher named John Knox led a religious rebellion, overthrowing the Catholic queen.
Checkpoint! How were Calvin’s ideas put into practice?
Critical Thinking Questions Why did the sale of indulgences become a critical issue during the Renaissance but not during the Middle Ages? How did Luther’s ideas differ from those expressed by the Catholic Church. How might Luther have felt about the Calvinist theocracy in Geneva?