Protestant Reformation During the Renaissance the church was under fire. Christians accused the church of corruption and worldliness. Some of the problems were: ◦During this time the Pope competed with Italian princes for power. ◦The popes lived the lavish life. They also became great patrons having artists beautify their churches. ◦To support these lifestyles the church increased their charges for some services (marriages and baptism). ◦Some promoted the sale of indulgences which is lessening the time a person would spend in purgatory by giving money. The problems of the Church led to many protests of Church practices. Many urged the Church to return to the simple ways of the early Christianity. The y stressed Bible study and rejection of the secular world.
Luther’s Protest In 1517, the protests against the Church became a revolt. This revolt was triggered by German monk Martin Luther. Martin Luther was outraged by the selling of indulgences. In response to the selling of indulgences, Luther wrote The 95 Theses. It stated there was no basis in the Bible about indulgences nor could a pope release a person from purgatory. He said the only way a person could be saved is through faith.
Martin Luther Martin Luther’s 95 Theses spread across Europe. ◦What invention helped spread the 95 Theses spread so quickly? ________________________ The Church told Martin to recant or give up his words. In 1521, the Pope excommunicated Martin Luther. Later, Roman Emperor Charles V declared Martin an outlaw and it a crime for anyone to give shelter or food to Martin.
Martin Luther Teachings Martin believed that a person received salvation through faith not good works. He believed that the Bible was the true source of religious truth. He denied other authorities, such as Church councils or the pope. Martin believed all Christians had the same access to God. He also translated the Bible into German vernacular.
Spread of Lutheran ideas Lutheran believers began to use a new name Protestants. They got this name because they “protested” the papal authority. German rulers used his belief’s as a way to try and over throw the Church’s power. Peasants joined Luther’s cause to gain social and economic change. Although Martin supported social and economic change, he was against the revolt.
Peace of Augsburg During the 1530-1540’s, Emperor Charles V tried to force Martin back into the Catholic church. After a number of brief wars, in 1555 the Peace of Augsburg allowed each German ruler to decide which religion, Catholic or Lutheran, they wanted to follow. Most northern German states chose Lutheranism and most of the southern German states remained Catholic.
John Calvin Calvin wrote the book Institutes of the Christian Religion Calvin had many of the same beliefs as Luther; however, he preached an idea of predestination, which means that God knew a long time ago who would receive salvation. In 1541 Protestants in Geneva (a city-state of Switzerland) asked Calvin to lead their community. Calvin’s idea was to set up a theocracy a government ruled by church leaders. Calvinist stressed hard work, discipline, honesty, and morality. Citizens faced harsh punishments for things such as fighting, swearing, laughing in the church, or dancing.
Reformation Ideas Spread Henry III the Catholic king of France said “ If the city of Geneva was reduced to ashes it would be a good thing.” As Reformation ideas spread, new sects of Christianity developed, such as Anabaptist. Henry VIII had his own problem with the church. Henry and his wife had only one child, a girl. Henry wanted a male heir to the thrown, so he decided to marry Anne Boleyn. Since the Catholic church did not permit divorce Henry asked the pope to annul the marriage. The pope refused. Henry passed laws so that he could become the leader of the Church of England.
The Catholic Reformation During the 1530’s and 1540’s, the Pope decided to restore the moral authority of the Roman Catholic Church. He called the Council of Trent. It declared that salvation comes faith and good works. They also said that the Bible was a source of religious truth, but not the only one. He also encouraged stiffer punishments for corruption among the clergy and better education for clergy members. To deal with the Protestants directly, the Pope strengthened the Inquisition. The Inquisition used secret testimony, torture, and execution to rot out heresy. By 1600, Rome was more devout than it was 100 years earlier. The reforms did slow the Protestant growth and some areas returned to the Catholic church.
Widespread Persecution During this time of heightened passion, persecution was widespread. Protestants killed Catholics and Catholics killed Protestants. At this time, there was a wave of witch hunting, too. Between 1450 and 1750 thousands of women and men died as victims of witch hunts. People were looking for scapegoats- people they can blame their problems on.
Mini-Project Today, you will complete three posters. 1. Create a poster that reflects the teachings of Martin Luther. 2. Create a poster that reflects the teachings of John Calvin 3. Create a poster that reflects the changes of the Catholic Church, after the Council of Trent.
Mini-Project Your poster must include: ◦A list of changes that you will make regarding your new ideas ◦Some Graphic or Picture