23Setting the SceneDuring the Renaissance, the Church increasingly came under fire. All levels of society accused the clergy of corruption and worldliness.“Wicked Wolves, Instead of saving souls of the dead and sending them to Heaven, they gorge themselves at banquets after funerals.”The Protestant Reformation would shatter the Unity that Christians had under the Roman Catholic Church.
33Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs.Abuses in the ChurchPopes competed with Italian princes for political power.Popes fought long wars to protect the Papal States against invaders.Popes led lavish lifestyles and spent a great deal of money on the arts.The Church increased fees for services such as weddings and baptisms to finance worldly projects.Some clergy promoted the sale of indulgences.Erasmus urged a return to simple ways, and stressed Bible Study and rejected the worldliness of the Church
4The Teachings of Martin Luther 3The Teachings of Martin LutherMartin Luther was a German monk and professor of theology who triggered the revolt against the Catholic ChurchEarly in his life Luther tried to lead a holy life by fasting and praying. He believed though he was doomed to eternal damnationHe grew away from the church because of the corruption and worldliness, an incident in Wittenberg Germany prompted him to take action.
5The 95 Theses1517 Johann Tetzel started to preach outside Wittenberg, GermanyOffered indulgences to any Christian who donated money to help rebuild St. Peters Cathedral in Rome. Said these payments would not only get them into heaven but they could buy salvation for their dead relatives “ Don’t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out”Tetzel’s actions outraged Luther, he drew up 95 Thesis, or problems with the church and indulgences. Luther posted these theses on the Doors of the All Saints Church in Whittenberg, GermanySaved ONLY through FAITH [salvation through faith]
6Luther Versus the Church Luthers 95 theses spread quickly across Europe the Church soon called for Luther to recant his arguments or give up his views, Luther refusedLuther urged Christians to reject the power of Rome, because the church would not reform itself we must reform it1521 Luther was excommunicated, Holy Roman Emperor summoned Luther to a meeting in Worms, Germany. Luther thought he would have to defend his beliefs, instead the diet told him to recant, he refused saying “Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other, I am captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe.”
7Luther Versus the Church cont. Charles V [holy roman emperor] declared Luther an outlaw, making it a crime to give him food or shelter, but Luther had many powerful supportersA prince at Wartburg, Germany hid him in his castleAll across Germany people were championing Luther and his teachings, they began to renounce the authority of the pope.
8Luther’s teaching Salvation by FAITH alone Bible was the sole source of religious truthPriests and the Church officials do not have special powers, Luther translated the Bible into German vernacular so that all had equal access to God through faith and the bibleRejected five of the seven sacraments because they were not mentioned in the bible, He banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints. He emphasized the sermon and not the ritual surrounding it, clergy could marry. He created the Lutheran Church
9Spread of Lutheran Ideals Luther’s ideas found a fertile field in northern Germany and Scandinavia. While the new printing presses spread Luther’s writings, fiery preachers denounced Church abuses. By 1530 the Lutherans were using a new name, Protestant, for those who “protested” papal authority.
10Widespread Support Clergy saw reforms as answer to Church Corruption German Princes followed for personal reasonsThrow off the rule of the ChurchThrow off the rule of the Holy Roman EmperorChance to take Church landMany Germans followed because of Nationalism [national loyalty], tired of money going to support the Church in Italy
11The Peasants’ Revolt 1524 Peasants’ Revolt took place in Germany Many peasants took hold of Luther’s ideas, hoping for social and economic change.1524 Peasants’ Revolt took place in GermanyRebels called for end of Serfdom and demanded changes in their harsh livesLuther though favored social order and political authority, he denounced the revolt as it became violentNobles with the support of Luther crushed the rebellions and killed tens of thousands and left many more homeless
12The Peace of Augsburg1530’s & 1540’s Holy Roman Emperor Charles V tried to force German Princes back to Catholicism, failedAfter a few wars Charles and the Princes reached a settlement “the Peace of Augsburg”1555 allowed the Princes to decide on religion in the territory they controlled most in the North remained Lutheran, South some stayed Catholic, obviously because of their location
13John Calvin/Ulrich Zwingli Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin presented further challenges to the Church.Zwingli a priest and admirer of Erasmus lived in Zurich, Switzerland, he rejected elaborate rituals and stressed the importance of the BibleJohn Calvin had a logical razor sharp minds his ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the reformation
14Teachings Calvin was born in France, trained as a priest and lawyer 1536 published Institutes of the Christian Religion which sets out his beliefs, and how to run a Protestant churchHe believed like Luther in the Bible and Salvation by GracePredestination though was his idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.2 kinds of people saints and sinners, Calvinists tried to live like saints, because they were the only ones that would reach heaven
15Calvin’s Geneva Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva Switzerland [Church run State]Followers believed to be the “chosen” few they stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and moralityFines or worse if they were caught fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancingClosed theaters and frowned on elaborate dressGeneva was seen as a model by many ProtestantsCalvin, like Luther, believed in educating both boys and girls. Women though should read the bible in private, but he allowed women to sing in church, many church leaders disagreed
16Spread of CalvinismBy the late 1500’s Calvinism spread to Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland with this new challenge to Catholicism wars eruptedIn Germany Calvinists faced opposition from both Catholics and Lutherans, In France wars raged between Huguenots and CatholicsIn the Netherlands sermons were preached in the countryside Calvinism became known as the Dutch Reformed ChurchIn Scotland John Knox led a rebellion and overthrew their Catholic queen and set up the Scottish Presbyterian Church