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2004 AP Psych Test Don’t go to the next slide until students have answered the question.

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1 2004 AP Psych Test Don’t go to the next slide until students have answered the question.

2 1. the answer is B. Sensory adaptation explains why we can’t feel our underwear most of the time.

3 2. A. experimental – in a lab B. cognitive – how we think C. developmental – how we develop D. social – how we interact with other people E. clinical – in a clinic or hospital

4 3. The answer is A. It helps people diagnose and classify disorders.

5 DSM-IV-TR The five axes of the DSM-IV-TR. Axis I Clinical syndromes. (All mental disorders & criteria for rating them except personality disorders/mental retardation, also abuse/neglect) Axis II Personality disorders, Mental retardation. (Life long deeply ingrained, inflexible & maladaptive) Axis III General medical condition. (Any medical condition that could effect the patients mental state.) Axis IV Psychosocial & environmental problems. (Stressful events that have occurred within the previous year) Axis V global assessment functioning. (How well the patient performed during the previous year)

6 4. The answer is E. Post = after traumatic = traumatic. PTSD is common with war veterans but it also happens with other horrific events.

7 MAJOR categories of Mental Disorders 1.Anxiety disorders 2.Mood disorders 3.Somatoform disorders 4.Dissociative disorders 5.Personality disorders 6.Schizophrenia & other psychotic disorders

8 5. The answer is D. Humanists emphasize free will, self actualization, finding yourself, choosing your own path. Humanists – hippies.

9 Major SCHOOLS of psy… Psychoanalytical (dynamic) INSIGHT Behavioral (Conditioning) Humanistic Cognitive Social Biological

10 6. Remember the moon walking bear??? The answer is A. selective attention (similar to the cocktail party effect).

11 7. A. stimulus discrimination is when you know the difference. B. second order conditioning is when you train a dog to drool to a bell, then the dog associates light with the bell then drools to C. Just like Little Albert, you generalize your association to similar things.

12 8. A. Longitudinal studies take a long long long time (like decades). They measure how things change over time. B. ???? C. cross sectional studies study different sections of the population (different ages, class levels, race). D. Case studies study something in depth E. Observational – observe and take notes

13 The 3 – A’s of MOTIVATION Achievement Affiliation Aggression 9. The answer is C. People who do things for the love of it are intrinsically motivated. Intrinsic – inside your SELF (personal fulfillment) Extrinsic – outside your SELF (to impress or please others, or for GAIN)

14 10. The answer is D. (seeing a camouflaged bug)

15 Stimuli Discrimination 11. E. A dog drooling to a bell but not a gong.

16 Stimuli Generalization 12. C (racial) This tiger apparently doesn’t discriminate!

17 13. D When deciding if a behavior is abnormal, one’s ACTUAL gender is not a consideration. That is – everyone is born with certain genitalia, but if society rigidly (morally) defines gender ROLES, then THAT can lead to psychological anxiety in those who do not fit those roles,

18 14. Read this one a couple of times. If twins are reared apart then their environment is different. Since IQ scores have a lower correlation when reared apart, then environment is important. The answer is B.

19 15. A. standardization means it was given the same way to different people and the answers form a bell curve. B. ?? C. ?? D. validity means tests what it is supposed to. E. reliability means the results are the same again and again.

20 16. The answer is A. Electricity will travel to both sides of the brain but always originate on one side. So they cut it.

21 A: egocentrism is one stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, egocentrism is an inability on the part of a child in the preoperational stage of development to any point of view other than their own. B: Social context: Bandura asked “do people act differently according to the social situation and why? The answer is C. maturation. Biologically, she is growing up. D. Mary Ainsworth developed 3 types of attachment: Secure, Ambivalent, Anxious/avoidant. E. Assimilation has to do with schemas, grammar, categorization.

22 18. A. Cognitive = thinking. The psychologist is trying to change Wade’s behavior, not his thinking. B. Biological – give Wade medicine or surgery C. Psychodynamic – probe Wade’s unconscious mind through dream analysis or transference D. Humanistic – help Wade remove barriers to self actualization or find himself E. Behavioral therapy involves reinforcements and punishments to change a behavior.

23 19. a. RET therapy is a technique that challenges a person’s irrational thoughts, so it’s very confrontational! C. aversive conditioning- might involve shocking one’s testicles every time something is done or thought (classical cond.) D. person-centered usually means the client does most of the talking. E. systematic desensitation involves gradually exposing someone to their source of fear or anxiety.

24 20. Think optical – occipital So rule out C, D, and E since they don’t have it. Hearing goes to the temporal lobe (think ears are near the temple) TEMPO The answer is B.

25 21. The answer is c.

26 22. Pick the answer that is closest to 24 hours. Circa means about dian means day Circadian rhythms are your day/night cycles. The answer is A.

27 23. The answer is B. 10

28 24. a. behavior – behavioral therapy B. reach full potential – self actualization – humanistic therapy C. alter thought processes – cognitive therapy D. the answer E. get rid of irrational thoughts – cognitive (RET)

29 25. The answer is D. If the mean is 70, and the standard deviation is 10, How many test takers scored above 60? 60 is 1 standard deviation below the mean. If you are going to guess, will your answer be more or less than 50?

30 26. Salt and bananas! The answer is B.

31 27. What is another word for “relationship”? A. correlation B. central tendency relates to the way in which quantitative data tend to cluster around some value: mean, median, mode C. a histogram is a graphical representation showing a visual impression of the distribution of data. D. standard deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are. E. The t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other.

32 A. The amygdala is mainly in charge of Fight or Flight B. Hippocampus – Hippies started on college campus. You go to college to remember. The answer is B. C. Pituitary is growth, etc (Endocrine Sys) D. Hypothalamus is mainly in charge of body homeostasis: hunger, sex, temperature, etc. E. Thalamus is the relay station.

33 29. B semicircular canals

34 30. A. cocaine is a stimulant B. marijuana is a hallucinogen C. dopamine is a neurotransmitter D. alcohol is the answer E. nicotine is not a depressant

35 31. E. Only an experiment can establish cause and effect.

36 32. C

37 A. a “reflex to the bell” what does that mean? The word should have Conditioned RESPONSE to be accurate. B. huh?? C. C is the best answer Again these are BEHAVIORAL terms E. Monkeys are NOT primates – they are NOT intelligent. Even the lower primates KNOW nothing about scientific experiments 33. COGNITIVE (to make associations). If it had been a behavioral interpretation what would be the closest right answer?

38 34.The Stanford-Binet test is the actual name for what we call the IQ test. The answer is A.

39 35. A. and E. Rewards are better for extrinsically motivated musicians B. If the musician is achievement motivated, then the piece can’t be too hard. After all, they still want to achieve. C. If achievement is important, then easy pieces aren’t likely D. Practice is fun for the intrinsically motivated. The difficulty can’t be too hard for the achievement motivated. High/intrinsic achievers choose the task that challenges them but is not prone to failure.

40 36. diffusion means spread. The answer is C.

41 Other social psychology terms used in question 36 Prejudice is different from stereotyping and discrimination. It is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group. Stereotyping: to classify others into specific categories without much room for individualism or variation. Discrimination in BEHAVIORAL psyc is merely the ability to perceive the difference b/w 2 things Discrimination in SOCIAL psyc is the behavior…

42 37. The answer is A. Confirmation bias is when we only notice things that confirm our already held beliefs.

43 Other terms in ? 37 Availability Heuristic: refers to how easily something that you've seen or heard can be accessed in your memory. A Representative Heuristic is a cognitive bias in which an individual categorizes a situation based on a pattern of previous experiences or beliefs The term metacognition refers to the act of thinking about thinking, or the cognition of cognition. People in Piaget’s FORMAL OPERATIONAL stage do this Mnemonic devices help you remember: acrostic, etc

44 29 out of 30 recalled Chair, desk, and walls Only 8 subjects recalled it had a skull 9 subjects recalled it had books which it did not Memory for location is influenced by the person’s schema for that location. 38. A schema is a set of expectations, a mental construct, that we have about something. 30 people were asked about this office picture below. Click for results of survey.

45 39. The answer is C. If you catch a virus, then eat at a Mexican food restaurant, throw up, then you will NOT want to eat at that restaurant, even if you know that’s not where you got the virus. That’s the Garcia effect. Not Jerry or Cheery, although you could have a Garcia effect to Cheery Garcia. The answer is C. The actual Term for the Garcia Effect is Taste Aversion

46 40. C C C C Cones C C C C C Color Rods – black and white light. The answer is A.

47 41. Which answer deals with excitability and personality? The answer is D: TEMPERAMENT. Imprinting is the social psy term for baby animals attaching to…. Usually attributed to Konrad Lorenz. Accommodation is having to create a NEW category (opposite or Assimilation)

48 42. Her behavior is an example of what? A.Classical conditioning deals with reflex-like responses. Like a dog drooling to a bell. B.She’s not recovering anything C.No. that’s like Little Albert fearing all white furry things D.?? E.Observational learning (like the Bobo doll experiment)

49 43. E.

50 44. The answer is B. A client will “project” their personality onto the therapist.

51 45. E. Behaviorism. Watson was famous for the Little Albert experiment when he classically conditioned a baby to fear a white rat (and generalized that fear to all white furry things).

52 The Two OLD schools of psy Structuralism: in psychology, a systematic movement founded in Germany by Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) and mainly identified with Edward B. Titchener (1867–1927). Structuralism sought to analyze the adult mind (defined as the sum total of experience from birth to the present) in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find the way in which these components fit together in complex forms.

53 The second school of … Functionalism, attributed to psychologist William James stressed the importance of empirical, rational thought over an experimental, trial-and-error philosophy. The group was concerned more with the capability of the mind than with the process of thought. The movement was thus interested primarily in the practical applications of research.

54 46. What is the brain made of? What are nerves made of? The answer is B. neuron. Neurons are chemical AND electrical messengers made up of dendrites, soma, axon hillocks, axons, myelin sheaths, terminals, synaptic vesicles filled with various neurotransmitters that cross synapses to stimulate receiving dendritic receptors … RINSE AND REPEAT.

55 47. If you give an 11-year-old non-alcoholic beer, he’ll start acting drunk because he expects the alcohol to make him feel that way. The answer is A. expectations.

56 48. B. Which answer deals with an individual conforming to the group? B.

57 49.A. No. That’s behaviorism B. Although Abraham Maslow talked about peak experiences, he said that not all people have them. No. C. based on the ideas of unconditional positive regard, even mass murderers are good inside. D. Humanists are more positive than that! E. Nah, they valued free will more than that.

58 50. Remember, the brain evolved from the bottom to the top. The bottom of the brain deals with primitive basic life support. So, what is at the very top of the brain?? C. The cerebral cortex, the source of conscious thought. The outer wrinkly part of the brain where the lobes are.

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60 51. A. Simple failure to encode B. reconstruction errors after the event C. this is simple damage to the hippocampus which starts NEW memories. D. state – dependent memory E. answer RETRO-GRADE

61 lost memory Accident lost memory Retro-grade Anterograde-grade Before accident Timeline After accident

62 52. a. fixation is a freudian term for being stuck in a psychosexual stage of development B. hallucination is when you see or hear things that are not there. C. illusion is a disortion of the senses D. An eidetic image is formed if you can still see, at least in some degree of detail, an "image" of the original stimulus (picture) after it has been removed. The image will appear to "linger" on the original surface it was seen, something like an after-image (except in the original color). A true eidetic image can literally be "seen" by the subject until it fades. Sometimes eidetic images can be recalled at will without significant fading. E. phobia is an uncontrollable fear of something, not a hallucination. The individual may have a phobia but s/he is not “experiencing” it in this question.

63 53. The answer is C. There is something called instinctive drift. One time psychologists tried to train raccoons to deposit coins in a slot. However, they ALWAYS wanted to rub 2 coins together and “wash” them like they wash food in a stream. KNOW the term PREPAREDNESS. We are prepared by evolution to fear snakes more than we are to fear backing into a door knob when naked

64 54. A. Schizophrenia is associated with an abundance of dopamine, hallucinations and Enlarged, fluid-filled VENTRICALS in the brain.

65 55. A. neurotransmitter imbalance is the biological perspective B. thoughts – cognitive perspective C. bio-psychosocial perspective D. psychoanalysis focuses on unconscious, unresolved conflicts from childhood. E. Alcohol abuse is a SYMPTOM of…

66 56. A. hippocampus - memory B. Hypothalamus (remember the 4 F’s) C. Thalamus – relay station D. Pons – facial expressions, basic biological processes E. medulla – heart beat, blood pressure

67 57. A. Fixation – being stuck in a psychosexual stage. FUNCTIONAL Fixedness is something very different. B. repression – motivated forgetting C. regression – acting immature in times of stress D. sublimation – doing something positive with your “faults” E. reaction formation – acting the opposite of how you truly feel

68 58. C. behavioral (After all, the question is asking about behaviors) Maladaptive behaviors, like overeating, can be reinforced or learned through observation just like any other behavior. The key term is “be developed” which kicks out Biological.

69 59. B. systematic (gradual) desensitization The picture is virtual reality exposure therapy.

70 60. D. Set point This is from the motivation chapter. It theorizes that our body gets comfortable at a certain weight and is resistant to change.

71 First, the number of adipose cells (the cells that store fat) in the body can increase (following a body weight gain), but can never decrease. These cells are related to the set point, the long-term weight that the body tends to maintain. When the adipose cells are not full of stored fat, the person will be hungry; when they are full of stored fat, the person will not be hungry. Therefore, a person's hunger will make it extremely difficult for that person ever to maintain a weight lower than the person's highest attained weight. Second, if someone tries to lose weight by restricting caloric intake, that person's metabolic rate (the rate at which energy is burned in the body) will decrease, making it increasingly difficult to lose weight.

72 The OTHER hunger terms Hypophagia: reduced food intake. Hyperphagia: Abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food, thought to be associated with a lesion or injury in the hypothalamus. Glucostats: neurons that measure glucagen levels. Ventromedial Hypothalamus Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the hypothalamus PVN does BOTH

73 Hormones associated Glucagon: Larger amounts decrease Leptin: Larger amounts decrease Peptide Y: Larger amounts decrease Orexin: larger amounts increases Thyroxin: regulates metabolins

74 3 of the STRUCTURES DECREASES or INCREASES hunger, 2 of the chemicals DECREASES or INCREASES hunger.

75 61. This prompt deals with Ainsworth’s studies on attachment styles. She described the secure attachment, avoidant, and the answer, C. resistant or ambivalent attachment style This is the 2 nd Attachment question. Does this say something about the Test Development Committee?

76 62. The answer is D. The stimulus causes your autonomic nervous system to react and you cognitively assess the stimulus. Is your mom driving crazy or is she just having fun????

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78 Plotchnik’s 8 basic emotions and levels that are higher or lower in intensity

79 63. Standard deviation is how far apart are the numbers away from each other. How much do they deviate from each other. The answer is B. Let X be a random variable with mean value μ:random variable Here the operator E denotes the average or expected value of X. Then the standard deviation of X is the quantityexpected value That is, the standard deviation σ (sigma) is the square root of the variance of X, i.e., it is the square root of the average value of (X − μ) 2.sigma

80 64. Soma = body somataform disorders are the brain leading to some sensation of the body. Example: phantom pregnancy. The answer is A. She is not pregnant, but feels like she is

81 65. D. Classical conditioning – associative learning When a person or animal creates an automatic association between 2 things without reinforcements, that is classical conditioning (like Pavlov training a dog to drool to a bell) Also Learn these terms: Escape Learning, Avoidance Learning, and Learned Helplessness.

82 In order to investigate Learned Helplessness, researchers devised an experiment. In group one, the dogs were strapped into harnesses for a period of time with a shock and then released, and they ESCAPED the area. The dogs in the second group were placed in the same harnesses, but were subjected to electrical shocks that could be avoided by pressing a panel with their noses. The third group received the same shocks as those in group two, except that those in this group were not able to control the duration of the shock. For those dogs in the third group, the shocks seemed to be completely random and outside of their control. Later, the dogs were placed in a shuttlebox. Dogs from the first and second group quickly learned that jumping the barrier eliminated the shock. Those from the third group, however, made no attempts to get away from the shocks. Due to their previous experience, they had developed a cognitive expectation that nothing they did would prevent or eliminate the shocks. (Seligman & Maier, 1967).

83 66. D. Early behaviorists were uber-scientists who took things a bit too far. They said we should only study observable behavior like a pigeon pecking on a disk.

84 67. C. Deindividuation (not an individual for the moment). They riot because they get swept up by the crowd.

85 68. B. Humanists were the pioneers of group therapy. It makes sense since they are into client-centered therapy. In a group, the therapist doesn’t dominate the conversation.

86 69. A. General adaptation syndrome

87 More Emotion Theory Opponent Process Theory: asserts that emotions often surface in pairs which oppose each other; joy and sorrow, pleasure and pain, fear and relief. Two factor theory: Schachter--"people search the immediate environment for emotionally relevant cues to label and interpret unexplained physiological arousal.“ Emotion is BOTH physiological and cognitive.

88 And more Scientific Method 70. Reliability means you get the same results again and again, even if the test is crap. A. no because it needs to be the same test B. that’s predictive validity C. needs to be the same people D. there needs to be some sort of retake E. This is the best answer, even though it’s 2 versions of the same test

89 71. D. Heuristics are mental shortcuts Use a heuristic to unscramble this word: EQEUN Using a heuristic you might put the q and the u together. Using an algorithm, you would try all 1000 letter combinations until you get it.

90 72. B. the JND deals with noticing the difference between 2 similar things E. absolute threshold is the answer. Visual Cliff experiment 11Khz 18 Khz

91 73. A. semantic – the meaning of words B. episodic – an “episode” of your life (that time you farted in class) C. priming – visual hints prepare the brain to recall/remember related things faster. D. procedural – “procedures” like playing a piano, walking Prospective memory: the ability to remember to do something in the future

92 74. The answer is B. Serotonin deals with sleep, and too much leads to depression.

93 75. When people work in large groups (like in a tug of war game), the individual does not work as hard. This is called social loafing. The answer is C.

94 Other social psychology terms Group polarization: refers to the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individual's initial tendency is to be risky and towards greater caution if individual's initial tendency is to be cautious

95 And other social psych terms Social facilitation: the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks when in the presence of other people. Yerkes Dodson's Law Theory of Social Facilitation states that “the mere presence of other people will enhance the performance in speed and accuracy of well-practiced tasks, but will degrade the performance of less familiar tasks.”

96 76. B. Biological – deals with the physical body (brain, hormones, neurotransmitters)

97 Remember how you Remember 77. The answer is D. You “know” the answer but just can’t access it for some reason.

98 78. B.Token economy is when you use positive reinforcement with a large group of people like elementary schools or classrooms or mental wards. (Pizza party if everyone gets a 5)

99 79. The answer is C. Think how old does a child need to be before s/he understands that water conserves its mass even if it’s poured into a taller beaker. Centration: focusing all attention on ONE event/item This is the needed step to grasp Conservation

100 Find and study your STAGE DEVELOPMENT CHART!!!!!!!

101 80. Dissonance = discomfort cognitive = thinking We experience cognitive dissonance (discomfort) when our behavior doesn’t match our attitudes. Which leads to anxiety The answer is B.

102 81. For the evolutionary perspective, always look for words and phrases like “adaptive” “survival of the fittest”, “genetics”, “evolution” “Darwin”, “Dawkins”, Identical twin studies”. The answer is B.

103 82. D. Signal detection theory says we are more likely to hear something if we expect to hear something.

104 83. The answer is D. Intensity

105 84. Just think, which one comes first? Especially, which comes last??? The answer is E.

106 85. Cognitive therapy is about changing maladaptive thoughts. He would challenge irrational thoughts that would stress or depress the clients. (He’s where Dr. Phil got a lot of inspiration.)

107 86. a. Decay is a gradual forgetting over a long period of time B. amnesia is brought on by some sort of trauma C. no reconstruction error in remembering the number 9 PORN Proactive-Old info gets in the way of new Retroactive-New info gets in the way of old The answer is D because channel 16 is making her forget channel 9.

108 Think DIRECTION Old Girlfriend: JaneBetty my New Girlfriend who I called Jane My NEWEST girlfriend: What was the other girls name???

109 87. E.The self serving bias is when we attribute our successes to internal (dispositional) causes such as our hard work and intelligence... While we attribute our failures to external causes (the teacher was a jerk; the test was too hard).

110 88. Just rule out all the BAD things. The answer is E.

111 89. First, antisocial does NOT mean introverted. It means one does not have a conscience (like a serial killer). The answer is D. E. that’s narcissism (I am NOT narcissistic because I ACTUALLY is better than everyone else).

112 90. Psychoanalysts use projective personality tests, meaning they seek to access your unconscious mind by how you interpret pictures or fill in blanks. The MMPI is a self-report test, even more respected than the Myers-Briggs. The answer is B.

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114 Yell out what you see and I will diagnose your issue

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117 91. The answer is D. Acetylcholine Its function is motor movement and maybe memory. To much and you will…. Not enough and you will…. Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

118 92. The psychoanalytic perspective focuses on unconscious desires and conflicts. The answer is C.

119 93. Self report tests (like the MMPI and the Myers-Briggs and the Big Five) are trait tests. The trait approach to psychology says our personality is based on the sum of our traits (such as introversion, openness) The answer is B.

120 94. When we commit the FAE, we overestimate dispositional (internal) factors and we underestimate situational factors. The answer is A.

121 95. I feel Starbucky today. Language is creative. If we had a language acquisition device, then we couldn’t be so creative. The answer is A.

122 96. What are we doing to the subjects to study this? The answer is C

123 97. What are we measuring? The answer is B.

124 98. C. (same as 96.) (the independent variables)

125 99. Stage 2 has sleep spindles. (A) But what WAVES are associated?

126 100. C. Social – people facil – easy Sometimes, athletes and musicians play better on game day in front of people than at practice. (The Yerkes-Dodson law supports this as well!)


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