Presentation on theme: "Classic perspectives & theories in psychology The starting date of psychology as a science is considered to be 1879, the year in which the first psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Classic perspectives & theories in psychology The starting date of psychology as a science is considered to be 1879, the year in which the first psychology research laboratory was established by Wundt. Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt Functionalism William James Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud ‘Psychology should experimentally study the elements of consciousness, how they are organised & and how they are interrelated.’ ‘Psychology should study how behaviour & mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environments.’ ‘Psychology should study how unconscious conflicts influence behaviour and mental processes that occur at the conscious level’
Classic perspectives & theories in psychology Behaviourism John B. Watson Humanism Carl Rogers Contemporary Perspectives & theories in Psychology ‘Psychology should scientifically study observable behaviour that can be objectively measured and not focus on consciousness’ ‘Psychology should emphasise each person’s uniqueness as they strive to reach their full potential as a human being’ Biological perspective Behavioural perspective Cognitive perspective Socio-cultural perspective
Wilhelm Wundt Perspective: Structuralism Focus of study: Understanding & explaining the structure of consciousness by breaking it down into parts such as thoughts, feelings, sights, sounds & other sensations & how the parts are organised and how they are interrelated. Method of study: Wundt approached study of consciousness experimentally in his laboratory. He used a data collection technique called introspection – requires participants to reflect on their thoughts and other mental experiences and then report these to the researcher who would then analyse them.
Wilhelm Wundt Example of theory: Wundt measured the speed of mental processes by measuring precisely how long it took participants to consciously detect both the sight & sound of a bell being struck or to look at a block of twelve letters for a fraction of a second and immediately report as many letters as they could remember.
William James Perspective: Functionalism Focus of study: Understanding the functions or purpose that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment. He stressed the importance of the adaptability of consciousness and our ability to change our behaviour when necessary to function effectively in a constantly changing environment.
William James Method of study: Psychological research can include direct observations of people and animals in their natural environments. Example of theory: James published the Principles of Psychology where he presented many original ideas on a wide range of topics such as consciousness, the relationship between conscious experience and the body, individual differences in people, sensation, perception, memory & emotion. James - description of consciousness ‘a never-ending, constantly changing stream of thoughts, feelings and sensations’
Sigmund Freud Perspective: Psychoanalysis Focus of study: Focuses on the role of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding and explaining behaviour & mental processes. Freud believed that the unconscious contained instinctive sexual & aggressive needs. If we act on these instinctive needs, our behaviour would be socially unacceptable. Conflicts arise between our attempts to satisfy our impulses & urges & what is acceptable in real world. These conflicts occur in our unconscious level of our mind. Sometimes we get glimpses of our unconscious impulses. E.g dreams, slips of tongue, jokes etc.
Sigmund Freud Method of study: Freud developed his theories from his work with patients with mental health problems. He drew observations from his family & reflections on his own personal thoughts, feelings & behaviour. Freud did not conduct scientific research such as laboratory experiments to test his theories. Example of theory: Freud developed the first theory in relation to personality development. Freud describes 5 different stages of personality & the different types of conflicts or emotional events that arise in each. We need to successfully resolve these conflicts if we are to have a healthy personality. Freud also developed a psychoanalytic theory of mental illnesses.
John B. Watson Perspective: Behaviourism Focus of study: Understanding and explaining how behaviour is learned and moulded by experience. We tend to repeat behaviours that we find rewarding in some way and avoid or not repeat behaviours we associate with punishment. As rewards & punishments are in our environment, we are controlled by our environment.
John B. Watson Method of study: Psychology should focus on the scientific study of observable behaviour that could be objectively measured and confirmed by researchers. Watson conducted research on learning primarily with animals in carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Example of theory: Watson focused many experiments using animals on the roles of rewards and punishment on learning. Greater control could be exercised over the ‘learning’ experiences of animals in laboratory experiments.
Carl Rogers Perspective: Humanism Focus of study: Understands and explains behaviour and mental processes that focuses on the uniqueness of each individual person and the positive qualities and potential of all human beings to fulfil their lives. Rogers emphasised our free will (all individuals who freely choose to behave in whatever way we desire and act according to our choices, changing along the way if we choose to). We control our own destinies. Behaviour is not caused, or determined, by things outside our control.
Carl Rogers Method of study: Rogers used case studies of his work with people who sought his professional assistance. Rogers did little scientific research to test his theories and ideas. Example of theory: Person centred theory of personality- proposes that our personality develops as we strive to overcome the various hurdles that we face in our attempts to reach our full potential Client centred therapy – clients (patients) have the power and motivation to help themselves with the guidance of a therapist.
Abraham Maslow Perspective: Humanism Focus of theory: All people are motivated to fulfil a hierarchy of needs which is inborn. These needs range from survival needs up to those that will enable a person to fulfil their potential. Self actualisation is the highest of growth needs and cannot be achieved until all the lower-level basic needs have been at least partly satisfied.