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School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 2 Mitchell Yell & Christine Christle University of South Carolina.

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Presentation on theme: "School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 2 Mitchell Yell & Christine Christle University of South Carolina."— Presentation transcript:


2 School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 2 Mitchell Yell & Christine Christle University of South Carolina

3 Secondary & Tertiary Systems ~80% of Students ~15% ~5%

4 Data-based Indicators Students Secondary & Tertiary Interventions

5 Secondary interventions Interventions that involve _____ ____ of students or ________ students These students exhibit problem behavior but do not need the ____ _______ __________ interventions

6 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Improved _________ –Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior. –System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student is “set up for _______” –First contact is positive: each morning, each class period & activity period

7 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Increase in contingent ________ –more often. –tied to student behavior. Can be applied in all school _________ –Classroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor)

8 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Elevated reinforcement for _________ behavior Adult and peer attention delivered each target period Adult attention (or tangible) delivered at end of day Linking school and ____ support Provide format for positive student/parent contact

9 Classroom Management

10 The Triangle in the Classroom

11 The Dimensions of Classroom Management Preventing Intervening Responding

12 Jacob Kounin: (1970) Discipline and Group Management  Successful managers prevent behavior problems by keeping their students consistently & actively engaged in learning  Teachers who approach classroom management as the systematic process of establishing and maintaining a successful learning environment will have greater success than those who emphasize discipline

13 Kounin’s Specific Findings The ripple effect Withitness Student accountability Smoothness & momentum Valence

14 “Withitness” Demonstrating that you know what is going on in your classroom –Communicated by teacher behavior Three important elements –Correct target for desists –Attending to the most serious problem first –Timing

15 “Overlapping” The ability to deal with more than one situation at a time Communicates withitness and that the teacher will not be distracted

16 “Smoothness & Momentum” Lesson Movement –Pacing, momentum, transitions Major Mistakes –Jerkiness, dangles, flipflops –Slowdowns, overdwelling

17 “Student Accountability” Individual Accountability –The degree to which the students are responsible for performance Attention –Randomly pick students for recitation –Ask a question, then call on a student

18 “The Ripple Effect” The tendency of behavior to spread outward like ripples in a pond –Positive –Negative

19 “Valence” What the teacher does to attract and hold student attention Satiation-Overdoing leads to boredom –Purposeless repetition Avoid satiation –Enthusiasm, interesting activities, variety, challenge

20 Carolyn Evertson “One of the first and most basic tasks for teachers is to develop smoothly running classrooms” “Establishing an effective classroom management system that keeps students involved in worthwhile activities, while preventing problem behavior is a first priority” These procedures could be successfully taught to teachers

21 Evertson’s Findings Effective teachers: – Prevent problem behavior – Establish positive leadership within first few day – Organize their classrooms in an orderly manner – Communicate behavioral expectations to students – Know that when classroom control is lost, it is difficult to regain it Teachers can learn effective management procedures

22 Proactive Classroom Management In proactive classrooms, teachers design their classroom environments and engage in behaviors that reduce the probability that disruption will occur. In a reactive management system, the teacher waits for the problems to occur and then reacts to them

23 Classroom Experiences of Yellow & Red Zone Students Classrooms are too often characterized by teacher behaviors that exacerbate student misbehavior –Boring & repetitive tasks –Excessive amounts of downtime –Negative student-teacher interactions

24 Characteristics of a Proactive Classroom High levels of student engagement Low levels of disruptive and off-task behavior Such classrooms don’t just happen, they are the result of well-prepared teachers using evidence-based practices Proactive teachers understand and use positive behavior support

25 Classroom Strategies Rules, routines, & arrangements Effective instruction: REAL Social skills Level systems Token economies Group contingencies

26 Classroom rules 1.Students help develop 2.Posted, brief, positive 3.Teach 4.Enforce consistently

27 Classroom Routines Avoid wasting time Prevent behavior problems Foster student independence Specific Plans for –Signal for attention –Getting to work –Transitioning *** –Getting materials –Responding to questions –Asking for help –Finishing early - free time

28 Physical Arrangements promote attention, structure, access, and orderly movement minimizing distractions make efficient use of the available space Seating arrangements Materials & equipment (Be sure to test equipment beforehand!) Other staff

29 Effective Instruction Make Your Classroom REAL ! RelevantEngagingActiveLearning

30 Relevant?

31 Engaging? Engaging?

32 Engaging interest Teacher excitement generates student excitement Use a mystery story format –provide relevance in the form of a need for closure

33 Active ? Active ? We remember 90% of what we do, 75% of what we see, and 20% of what we hear

34 Average Scores HR Response Cards HR Quiz Scores84%96%75% Time On-task44%97%58% Attempts to Respond 8216 Responses1211

35 Level Systems Clearly define –Levels –Behaviors –Reinforcers –Criteria for movement Develop Systems Develop Systems for –Monitoring & evaluating –Communication

36 Token Economies Identify target behaviors –teach which behaviors lead to reinforcement –teach which behaviors result in loss Plan an exchange system –assign value based on importance of behavior

37 Token Economies Define tokens –teacher controlled –transportable –ability to present immediately Identify back-up reinforcers –use high-probability behaviors –students help select

38 Group Contingencies Interdependent: group behavior = group reward “Good Behavior Game” “Teacher Student Game” Independent: individual behaviors = individual rewards Dependent: one student’s behavior = group reward “Hero Procedure”

39 Social Skills Behavior management problems are SS problems Many students really do need instruction What are some SS your students need to learn? –Giving and receiving feedback –Disagreeing politely –Sharing and taking turns

40 Social Skills Assessment Skill or performance deficits? Can they do it? Do they have a good reason to do it? LIFE is all about Social Skills! Formal: The Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment for Adolescents Informal:

41 Social Skills Assessments Rating scales –By others –Self-ratings Interviews Observations Cultural & ethical considerations

42 Social Skills learned behaviors prerequisite for academic success must produce valid outcomes must meet students’ intent are best taught in context and relevant

43 Teaching Social Skills Teach like an academic skill –Modeling –Role-playing –Coaching –Feedback –Generalization

44 Social Skills Promote skill acquisition in context Enhance skill performance Reduce or remove competing behaviors Facilitate maintenance and generalization

45 Example: Teaching Appropriate Comments High School Teacher –Helped students generate a bank of appropriate comments and modeled –Had students restate/practice instead of sending them out of class –Emphasized generalization of appropriate comments to life beyond the classroom - job interviews, workplace, church, –Took data and set a goal –Rewarded class with snacks (group contingency)


47 Activity: Teach a Social Skill 1.Explain the skill and why it is important 2.Model: Show how to do it. Role play 3.Guided practice: Have them do it with you 4.Independent Practice: Give them opportunities to role play and use the skill in context –Precorrect to help them remember to use the skill –Correct (model) if necessary 5.Monitor and evaluate: Keep data and reinforce

48 Breaking Habits Awareness training Competing response training support Social support –Alcoholics Anonymous –Weight Watchers Motivation procedures

49 Understanding Reinforcement Forced-Choice Reinforcement Menu Complete in 5 minutes Total each category A, CMPICN A, CM, P, I, CN

50 Reinforcement Menu A _______ CM ______ P ________ I ________ CN CN _______


52 Develop a SS Teaching Plan Pick a Social Skill Plan an assessment Plan a teaching strategy –produce valid outcomes –meet their intent Motivate Plan maintenance & generalization

53 Managing Problem Behavior

54 Noncompliance Adult issues a command The child passively or actively refuses to comply Four Types of Noncompliance a)Passive noncompliance (-) b)Simple refusal (+) c)Negotiation (+) d)Direct defiance (-)

55 Managing Non-compliance video Step 1: Present a request –Secure student’s attention respectfully –Clearly specify task –Allow time to process Step 2: Determine if request is fulfilled Step 3: Follow through based on response

56 Ineffective Teacher Responses When confronted with student problem behavior, teachers typically try a number of management techniques to stop the behavior ASAP Unfortunately the most common procedures are ineffective or can actually worsen the situation For example…

57 Providing Social Attention Reprimanding & arguing This attention may strengthen problem behavior Students learn that problem behavior is an effective way to obtain attention  By providing attention, the teacher’s attempt to stop the behavior may lead to strengthening & maintaining it

58 Ignoring Many serious acting out behaviors are used by students because it allows them to escape or avoid academic tasks Sometimes teachers ignore the misbehavior, thinking that their attention is reinforcing the student By ignoring the student the gain reinforcement from peers and may escape the academic task

59 Nattering “What is the matter with you?” “Why do you have to misbehave all the time?” “How many times do I have to tell you to get busy?” Such questions convey that a teacher is not in control of the situation

60 Yelling & Threatening Issuing increasingly harsh reprimands, or by making a public display of authority (e.g., “You will behave because I say so!”) The student may interpret such behavior as an attack, thus leading to a power struggle Other students in the classes may see such behavior unfair and ineffective

61 Issuing a Command when a Student is Agitated When a student is agitated, directions from the teacher, especially if delivered publicly, are likely to be perceived as a provocative event, This may may serve as the trigger for an angry, escalating behavior episode In such situations, teachers should attempt to calm the student down and speak softly him or her and attempt to determine the source of the problem.

62 Escalating Prompts Giving a command, and if the student does not comply, increasing the harshness of the command Examples include statements such as: “You will do what I say,” “You won’t talk to me that way,” or “I told you to begin work now!” (often accompanied by yelling or a stern voice) Studies of classroom interactions have shown that teachers tend to fall into a pattern of paying extra attention to chronically disruptive children’s bad behavior and very little attention to their good behavior

63 Escalating Prompts Research with children who exhibit serious misbehavior has shown that these procedures only worsen the situation Teachers often persist in them because they work with nondisruptive or social children Teachers become frustrated because the harder they try with these kids, the worse the behavior becomes

64 So What Should Teachers Do????

65 A teacher’s goal when responding to problem behavior should be to stop the inappropriate behavior while maintaining order in the classroom and reducing the likelihood that the problem behavior will reoccur

66 What We Know About Problem Behavior The majority of problem behavior consists of minor talk and “goofing off” type behaviors Teachers don’t have a game plan for responding Often they respond in a manner that makes things worse

67 Principles to Follow when Responding to Problem Behavior

68 Principle #1: Emphasize Preventive Measures Develop classroom rules and procedures Minimize student down time Plan lessons at the appropriate level of difficulty Monitor student behavior

69 Principle #2: Modify the learning environment Are problem behaviors fostered by the organization of the classroom? Are the problem behaviors specific to a particular person or more than one person? Are the problem behaviors specific to a particular instructional task, response form, or problem type?

70 Principle #3: Use precorrection strategies Students may behave reasonably well until something in the classroom environment serves as a trigger for problem behavior Teachers can eliminate many problem behaviors by managing these triggering events by using a strategy called precorrection

71 Using PreCorrection Identify the situation in which the problem behavior occurs Clearly specify the behaviors that you want the student to exhibit in that situation Prompt the replacement behavior when the student is in this situation Reinforce the student for engaging in the appropriate behavior

72 Principle #4: Respond privately rather than publicly if possible Private responding decreases the likelihood that the student will be reinforced by peers Private responding does not disrupt classroom order & allows learning activities to continue Private responding lessens the likelihood of a power struggle between the student and teacher Savage (1999) calls these low profile responses

73 Low profile responses for minor problems Nonverbal Proximity Control Waiting for compliance The “evil eye” Verbal Personal Redirection Reinforcing appropriate behavior Rule reminder

74 Principle #5: Respond consistently and fairly Responds to all incidences of problem behavior whenever and with whomever they occur and with the same measured response Classrooms that are characterized by students’ constantly testing the rules and the teacher are usually classrooms in which a teacher is inconsistent in responding to rule violations

75 Principle #6: Use alpha commands Short and clear directions, as opposed to beta commands which are wordy and unclear Alpha commands give students specific information on what they need to do, whereas beta commands do little more than convey teacher frustration

76 Principle #7: Develop a game plan Have a consistent manner of responding when problem behaviors arise Develop a hierarchy of consequences when students do not comply to teacher directions to stop misbehavior Teachers will be more confident and students will respect boundaries

77 Principle #8: Provide contingent reinforcement Teachers ignore students with problem behavior when they behave & provide attention when these same students are displaying problem behavior Teacher need to catch students behaving appropriately and reinforce them

78 When Low Profile Responses Fail: When a student is noncompliant, and low profile approaches don’t work, use a precision request A precision request is a procedure for making requests that maximizes the likelihood of compliance (Morgan & Jenson, 1988)

79 Variables That Affect Compliance Do not use a question format Get up close Look’em in the eyes Use a quiet & businesslike voice Give a detailed request Use only twice Reinforce compliance

80 Precision Requests

81 Summary of Secondary Interventions Less time intensive, more cost effective Best for low level problem behavior Efficient - they use a similar set of strategies across a group of students who need similar support Effective - they focus on decreasing problem behavior in the classroom thus increasing academic engagement & decreasing office referrals

82 Team Action Planning What Secondary strategies will you implement?

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