Presentation on theme: "Ch.5 – Interactions in Ecosystems How do the parts of an ecosystem interact? Lesson 1: What is an Ecosystem? Lesson 3: What are water ecosystems? Lesson."— Presentation transcript:
Ch.5 – Interactions in Ecosystems How do the parts of an ecosystem interact? Lesson 1: What is an Ecosystem? Lesson 3: What are water ecosystems? Lesson 2: What are land biomes? Lesson 4: How do organisms interact? Lesson 5: How does energy move in ecosystems? Lesson 6: What cycles occur in ecosystems? Click on the lesson you want to learn.
What is an ecosystem? Main Idea – Organisms live where they can have their needs met. These needs are met by the living and nonliving things around them. Organisms interact. Each part has a role. The whole system works to meet the needs of all the parts. If the needs aren’t met, the organisms die or move to another ecosystem.
Vocabulary An ecosystem is all the living and nonliving things an area. Living parts might be animals, insects, plants. Nonliving parts might be air, sunlight, water and soil. A population is a group of organisms of one species that live in an area at the same time. A population may be all the starfish or all the crabs in an area.
Vocabulary A community is made up of all the populations in an area. A biome is a large ecosystem with generally the same climate and organisms.
A niche is the role that an organism has in an ecosystem. (The niche of an owl in a temperate rainforest is that of a hunter. It eats small animals.) A habitat is the place in which an organism lives. (The habitat of the owl are the trees and the land on which they live.) Vocabulary
Living & Nonliving Parts Nonliving parts of an ecosystem include air, water, soil, temperature, and sunlight. Organisms that live there need nonliving parts to survive. Many populations make up the living parts of an ecosystem. Members of a community depend on each other to fill needs, such as food, shelter, and reproduction.
Biomes The world is divided into large climate regions called biomes (ecosystems) which make up the biosphere. Organisms within a biome interact with each other and may change the habitat or be affected by changes that occur to other organisms.
What are land biomes? Main Idea – Organisms have structures or behaviors that help them live in the different land biomes. Tropical RainforestTropical Rainforest Deciduous ForestDeciduous Forest Grassland BiomesGrassland Biomes Taiga BiomesTaiga Biomes Desert BiomesDesert Biomes Tundra BiomesTundra Biomes
Tropical Rainforest Tropical rainforests are often near the equator. They are warm all year long and average more than 10 feet of rain each year. Tropical rainforests have more species of plants and animals than all other biomes. All continents, except Europe and Antarctica, have tropical rainforests.
Deciduous Forest These forests grow in places with less rainfall and cooler temperatures than tropical rainforests. Large areas of the eastern U.S. are covered by deciduous forests. These forests have trees like oak, maple, and elm which lose their leaves in the colder fall and winter months.
Deciduous Forests (continued) With less food available in the winters, animals have adapted. Many animals will hibernate (sleep through the winter). Fur color may change to blend in with the seasons. Birds might fly south to warmer climates in the winter.
Grasslands These biomes are covered by many types of grasses, few trees, and support many kinds of animals. The middle plains area of North America is grassland. Much grassland has been replaced by farmland, which decreased the numbers of some animals.
Taiga These biomes have grass, trees that have needles, and animals adapted for cold temperatures. Taiga biomes are fairly dry. All taiga biomes are in the Northern Hemisphere and in Canada and Alaska in North America. Typical animals include: bears, elk, moose and wolves. Thick fur keeps the animals warm.
Desert Deserts receive less than 10 inches of rain each year. Organisms are adapted to survive extreme temperatures and little rainfall. Not all deserts are hot. They can be quite cold at night or even all day.
Desert (continued) Large root systems of plants are close to the surface of the ground to absorb water quickly when it comes. Organisms include: rattlesnakes, jackrabbits, lizards, beetles. Bushes, grasses, cactuses grow well in deserts.
Tundra The ground is frozen almost year-round, the temperature is very cold, and there is little rainfall year-round. Trees cannot grow here. The tundra is in the northern parts of our world, northern coasts of Alaska, Canada and Russia. Limiting factors, such as amount of food, water, space and shelter, determine the number of organisms that can live in an ecosystem.
Tundra (continued) Rodents, rabbits, and caribou feed on small plants and grasses. Weasels, musk ox, owls, and foxes also live on the tundra.
What are water ecosystems? Main Idea – Water ecosystems differ in the kind of water they have, how fast it moves, and how deep it is. RiversRivers WetlandsWetlands Coral ReefsCoral Reefs The Deep SeaThe Deep Sea
Rivers Different kinds of rivers have different kinds of organisms. Plants and animals that live in rivers usually do not also live in oceans. They cannot handle the extra salt in ocean water. Animals include fish like bullhead, trout, bass, and salmon. Other animals like crayfish, otters, ducks, turtles, and insects also make river ecosystems their home.
Wetlands A wetland is partly covered with water or is flooded at least part of each year, so many of the plants and animals are found on land and in water. Wetlands include the Florida Everglades, swamps, and estuaries (places where rivers flow into oceans).
Coral Reefs Coral reefs are important ecosystems. They are found in warm, shallow water. They often protect shore lines from ocean storms. The organisms found there have provided new kinds of medicines. Many kinds of food are found along reefs, like clams and crabs. Divers may see sharks, clownfish, eels, squid, and many other animals in reefs.
Corals are animals that have a special relationship with algae. The algae grow inside the corals and carry on photosynthesis. If the water is too deep, sunlight cannot reach the algae. Corals feed on the algae. Reefs are found near the coast of Florida, Australia and many other places. Coral Reefs (continued)
The Deep Sea Some very strange creatures live in the deeper areas of the ocean. They have to deal with cold, darkness, and very high pressure. Sunlight does not reach this deep, so no plants can grown. Animals eat dead plants and animals that sink from higher levels. Bacteria provide food for clams, crabs and tubeworms near deep-sea vents.
How do organisms interact? Main Idea – Plants and animals interact with each other. Sometimes their interactions are helpful. Sometimes they are not. Competition Animals compete with each other for territory and mates. Plants compete for sunlight and water.
Symbiosis is a long-term relationship between different species. One species is always helped. The other may be helped, harmed, or not affected at all. Some bacterias inside the digestive system help the animal digest its food. Parasites are organisms that feed off a host, taking its food or oxygen. Interactactions
How does energy move in ecosystems? Main Idea – Energy can pass through an ecosystem when food is eaten, but some energy is always changed to heat and not passed on. Energy Pyramid
Vocabulary Producers make their food from the energy of sunlight or chemicals in nature. This food can be used by many other organisms. Consumers cannot make their own food. They eat other organisms to stay alive and grow. All animals are consumers.
Herbivores eat only plants. Carnivores eat only animals. Omnivores eat both plants and animals. Decomposers eat waste or dead organisms, like bacteria or vultures. Vocabulary
What cycles occur in ecosystems? Main Idea – In an ecosystem, a substance may be passed from one organism to another. These substances go through an ecosystem again and again. A cycle is a repeating process or a repeating flow of material through a system.
Recycling Matter Animals produce waste every day. Eventually, plants, animals and all other organisms dies. Decomposers have the job of “cleaning up” the waste and dead matter by eating it. They break material into smaller pieces and put it back into the soil. Decomposers include bacteria, fungi, earthworms, flies, and slugs.