3 Introduction Whole Blood (WB) Collected directly from donors into blood transfusion bag containing anticoagulant 500 ml transfusion bag is used (contains 63 ml of anticoagulant + 450 ml blood)
4 Anticoagulants in blood units 1) Acid-Citrate-Dextrose (ACD) 2) Citrate-Phosphate- Dextrose (CPD) 3) Citrate,Phosphate,Dextrose,Adenine (CPDA-1)
5 Anticoagulants Used for WB? ACD & CPD preserve the unit for 21 days at 2-6ºC. CPDA-1 (anticoagulant/preservative for 35 days). C = Citrate→ to prevent clotting P = Phosphate→ to maintain pH D = Dextrose→ ATP generation A = Adenine-1→ substrate from which RBC produce ATP Anticoagulant ratio is 1.4 ml:10ml blood (63ml / 450ml)
6 (SAGM) → Saline-Adenine-Glucose- Manitol Purpose of additive solution, to improve RBCs storage viability till 42 days @ 2-6ºC * Added only to PRBCs Additive solutions
7 Blood Components Human blood consists of plasma, in which cells are suspended The plasma also contains other specialised substances, which are important for blood clot formation (e.g. clotting factors) Whole blood can be separated at the blood bank into various components
8 BLOOD COMPONENTS Blood separated into different parts: 1. Packed red cells 2. Platelets 3. Fresh frozen plasma 4. Cryoprecipitate 5. Granulocytes 6. Factor IX conc. 7. Factor VIII conc. There are more than 20 different products available
9 Whole blood Red cells Plasma Platelets (Fresh) frozen plasma (FFP) Cryoprecipitate Stored Plasma F lX Immuno- globulins Albumin Fractionated products F Vlla F Vlll Granulocytes
10 Blood Components Refers to a product separated from a single unit of whole blood The term plasma derivative indicates a blood product separated from a large volume of pooled plasma by a process called fractionation
11 Blood Components Separating WB into components of blood is necessary to avoid wasting of units.
12 Blood Components Separation Goals Decrease harmful effects of blood transfusion. Giving patients specific component needed. Allow a longer survival for components. More than one patient will use the unit.
13 Centrifugation Types? There are two types of centrifugation:- Light spin; (2000 rpm at 20ºC for 11 min) Heavy spin; (3500 rpm at 20ºC for 11 min)
14 Centrifuged blood Buffy Coat (WBCs & Platelets) Red Blood Cells Plasma
16 A- Blood components that carry oxygen Increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by increasing the circulating red blood cell mass. Carry oxygen and nourishment to the tissues and take away carbon dioxide.
17 1- PRBCs How to make (PRBCs)? RBCs have higher specific gravity than plasma, it moves to lower portion of the bag by centrifugation WB (Light spin) Two products: 1)PRBCs 2)Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
18 Whole Blood Unit After centrifugation WB separates into plasma & platelets & PRBCS
20 1- Red blood cell concentrates Prepared by removing approx. 200 ml of plasma from whole blood after centrifugation RBCs plus 100 ml of residual plasma In CPD-A can be stored for 35 days at 4 o C
21 1- Red blood cell concentrates Whole BloodRed cell concentrate Total Volume500 ml300 ml Volume of red cells 200 ml Volume of plasma 300 ml100 ml Hematocrit40 %70 %
22 1- Red blood cell concentrates High hematocrit → viscous → infuse slowly Rate of infusion increased by adding saline Other fluids should not used –Calcium containing fluids (eg. Ringer’s lactate) should not be added –May cause clotting –Glucose solutions –can cause clumping Only saline can be added to blood
23 Expiration date! –Once the PRBC unit is “opened” it has a 24 hour expiration date! 24 hours
24 2- Leukocyte poor blood No viable leukocytes WBCs are of no consequence In some patients cause febrile transfusion reaction Should receive leukocytes poor-blood WBCs can be removed by discarding the buffy coat (inverted centrifugation) Or by washing RBCs or by using filters Buffy coat Red cells
25 http://www.pall.com/39378_39479.asp Leukocyte Reduction Filters (maintains closed system) Final unit must have less than 5 x 10 6 WBCs
26 3- Frozen-thawed red cells Red cells can be frozen with use of cryo- preservation techniques Permit storage for up to 10 years Expensive procedure & recommended only in special circumstances –e.g. Individuals with rare blood types –For auto-transfusion
27 3- Frozen-thawed red cells The RBC's are first incubated in a 40% glycerol solution which acts as an "antifreeze" within the cells. The units are then placed in special sterile containers in a deep freezer at less than -60 degrees C. Cryopreserved units are thawed and washed free of glycerol prior to use as saline suspended RBC's.
28 3- Frozen-thawed red cells Deglycerolized RBCs –RBCs that have had the glycerin removed –Thawed at 37°C –A blood cell processor washes the cells with varying concentrations of saline –Considered “open”, expires in 24 hrs.
29 4- Washed RBCs Washed RBCs –Not effective in reducing WBCs –For patients (with anti-IgA) that may react with plasma proteins containing IgA –Reactions may be allergic, febrile, or anaphylactic
30 5- Irradiated RBCs Irradiated RBCs –Prevents T-cell proliferation that may cause transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (GVHD) –GVHD is fatal in 90% of those affected –Used for: Donor units from a blood relative HLA-matched donor unit Intrauterine transfusion Immunodeficiency Premature newborns Chemotherapy and irradiation Patients who received marrow or stem cells
31 6- Synthetic oxygen carrying agents Synthetic oxygen carrying agents –Perfluorochemical (e.g. Fluosol-DA ) Fluorinated hydrocarbons Readily dissolve oxygen Poor soluble in plasma Side effects: –Hypotension –DIC –Chemically modified hemoglobin Free Hb has a very short half life Chemically modified to: –increase intravascular survival –and to make it more effective in carrying oxygen
32 B- Platelets Important in maintaining hemostasis Help stop bleeding and form a platelet plug (primary hemostasis) People who need platelets: –Cancer patients –Bone marrow recipients –Postoperative bleeding
33 How platelets are processed REMEMBER!!! Requires 2 spins: –Soft – separates RBCs and WBCs from plasma and platelets –Heavy platelets in platelet rich plasma (PRP) will be forced to the bottom of a satellite bag 40-60 mL of plasma is expelled into another satellite bag, while the remaining bag contains platelet concentrate
34 Preparation of platelet concentrate RBCsPRP Plasma Platelet concentrate
35 B- Platelet Products Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) –Gentle centrifugation of whole blood –Supernatant transferred to the 2 nd bag Platelet Concentrates –Prepared from PRP by a 2 nd centrifugation –Removal of all but 50 ml of plasma –Contain approx. 6X10 10 platelets –60 – 80% Plts present in whole blood unit –Remain 5 days –Longer at 22 o C with continuous agitation
37 Whole blood unit Centrifuge using LIGHT spin Express Platelets Rich Plasma (PRP) into satellite bag Take PRP and centrifuge again now using HEAVY spin Express PPP into satellite bag & freeze at -18ºC Final products :PRBCs, Platelets concentrate, FFP
38 B- Platelet Products Contamination by WBCs & RBCs is usually small But there is enough to induce alloimmunization Plt concentrates from Rh +ve should not be administered to Rh –ve women Storage at 22 o C, therefore care to prevent contamination
39 C- Plasma Products Plt poor plasma can be separated into a number of products –Fresh frozen plasma –Platelet concentrate –Frozen plasma –Cryoprecipitate –Stored plasma
40 1- Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) Prepared from whole blood within 6 hours of collection Rapid freezing of plasma preserves the labile coagulation factors at maximum levels Don't contain cellular elements 200 ml volume
41 1- Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) Freeze at -18ºC for 1 year from collection date. Or freeze at -70ºC for up to 7 yrs Cross match is not required, but of coarse should be ABO compatible.
42 Indications of FFP Liver disease Severe burns Provides coagulation factors for –Bleeding –Abnormal clotting due to massive transfusion –Patients on warfarin who are bleeding –Treatment of TTP and HUS –Factor deficiencies –ATIII deficiency –DIC when fibrinogen is <100 mg/dL
44 2- Platelets Concentrate (PC) How to prepare PC? Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) centrifuged using (heavy spin), this will produce: 1)Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) 2)Platelets concentrate (PC) PC are stored at room temperature on platelet agitator (prevent platelets clumping) PC stored for 5 days at 20-24°C. Each unit should elevate the platelet count by 5000/µL
45 2- Platelets concentrate Indications: 1.To prevent bleeding due to thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction 2.To a patient undergoing an operation, if the platelet count is less than 20,000/µL
48 3- Frozen Plasma (FP) Separated from whole blood within 24 hours of collection Contains at least 50 % of original factor VIII & factor V frozen plasma Adequate source for treatment of mild to moderate coagulation factor deficiencies 200 ml volume Storage at -30 o C for up to 12 months
49 4- Cryoprecipitate Produced from freshly separated plasma by freezing at -70 o C followed by thawing at 4 o C Flocculent precipitate is rich in factor VIII, fibrinogen and fibronectin Once thawed, mixture is centrifuged to sediment the cryoprecipitate & all but 5 to 10 ml of supernatant plasma is removed Contains 250 mg fibrinogen 80 clotting units of factor VIII Stored at -30 o C for 12 months
50 4- Cryoprecipitate Increase of 2% of factor VIII level for each bag of cryoprecipitate infused Supernatant plasma removed is called stored plasma –Must be used within 5 weeks if stored at 4 o C –Lasts for 2 years at -30 o C
51 Cryo.. Indications: Hemophilia A Von Willebrand disease (VWD) Congenital or acquired fibrinogen defects (i.e., dysfibrinogenemia)
52 5- Stored plasma Plasma separated from whole blood after 24 hours of storage at 4 o C Can also be derived from cryoprecipitate production Contain reduced levels of labile coagulation factors V VIII & fibrinogen It is indicated for patients requiring volume expansion or protein replacement when labile clotting factors are not required Plasma products do not require crossmatch prior to use but should be ABO compatible
53 Summary Blood Components Blood Component Centrifugation Storage Temp Time Indication 1)PRBCs WB Light spin= 2000rpm-20 ºC -11min. PRBCs + PRP 2-6ºC + SAGM 42d Anemia Newborn exchange transfusion 2)PC PRP heavy spin= 3500rpm-20 ºC -11min. PC + FFP R.T 3-5 d Bleeding Operation if plt. Less than 20000/μl 3)FFP-18ºC 1 year - 65ºC 7 years Clotting factor deficiencies Severe burns
54 Summary Blood Components Blood Comp CentrifugationStorage Temp Time indication 4)Cryo a.WB special heavy spin= 3500rpm at 4ºC - 11min. RBC + Plasma b.Plasma store at -18 ºC then thaw at 4 ºC then heavy spin at 4ºC -30ºC 1 year Hemophilia A Von Willebrand disease
56 Plasma Derivatives Certain plasma derivatives can be obtained by fractionating the fresh frozen plasma or stored plasma Fractionation: Allows the processing of large volumes of pooled plasma Pooling of many units increases the risk of viral transmission to the recipient
57 Plasma protein fractionation Plasma proteins are separated according to differences of each protein. Fractionation involves changing the conditions of the pooled plasma (e.g. the temperature or the acidity) Proteins that are normally dissolved in the plasma fluid become insoluble, forming large clumps, called precipitate. The insoluble protein can be collected by centrifugation.
58 Plasma protein fractionation One of the very effective ways for carrying out this process is the addition of alcohol to the plasma pool while simultaneously cooling the pool. This process is sometimes called cold alcohol fractionation or ethanol fractionation. This procedure is carried out in a series of steps so that a single pool of plasma yields several different protein products, such as albumin and immune globulin.
59 Plasma Derivatives Preparation avaliable Coagulation Factors Factor VIII concentrates Factor IX concentrates Anti-thrombin III Albumin Plasma protein fraction Immune globulins Non-specific immune serum globulin (ISG) Rh immune globulin (RhIG) Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) Varicella-Zoster immune globulin (VZIG) Tetanus immune globulin (TIG)
60 1- Coagulation Factor Concentrates Prepared in a freeze-dried form Indicated for patients with congenital coagulation deficiencies –Risk of hepatitis is high Should not used for mild acquired coagulation deficiencies –Should be treated with FP or FFP
61 Factor VIII Concentrate Commercially prepared, lyophilized powder purified from human FFP Contain also small amounts of fibrinogen & other proteins Can contain blood group Abs Treat patients with hemophilia A
62 Differences of Cryoprecipitate & Factor VIII concentrates Cryoprecipitate Factor VIII concentrates Storage Temp.-30 o C 4 o C Short period RT Risk of Hepatitis LowHigh Treatment of hemophilia A Yes Treatment of vW disease Yesno
63 Factor IX Concentrate For the treatment Factor IX deficiency or Hemophilia B (Christmas Disease). Have been used to treat patients with acquired inhibitors of factor VIII –Have factor VIII bypassing activity Contains also factors II, VII & X in concentrated form Vials containing 500 units of factor IX
64 Factor IX Concentrate & liver disease It is contraindicated in patients with liver disease –Have low levels of circulating antithrombin III –Activation of clotting factors present in some factor IX concentrates, –cause DIC
65 Blood products & treatment of specific clotting factor deficiencies DeficiencyBlood product Indicated Fibrinogen Cryoprecipitate Stored plasma Factor V Fresh frozen plasma Frozen plasma Factor VII Factor IX concentrate Stored plasma Factor VIII Factor VIII concentrate Cryoprecipitate Von Willebrand’s Disease Cryoprecipitate Fresh frozen plasma Frozen plasma Factor IX Factor IX concentrate Factor X Stored plasma Factor XI Stored plasma Factor XIII Stored plasma
66 2- Oncotic Agents Albumin: volume expansion Other colloids are available for blood volume expansion –Dextran –Gelatin –Hydroxyethyl starch –Polyvinylpyrrolidone
67 Albumin Albumin is prepared by ethanol fractionation of pooled plasma Available in 5% and 25% concentrations. Have physiological sodium content No risk of hepatitis, sterilized during preparation No coagulation factors or blood group Abs
68 Albumin Used for treatment of hypovolaemia and hypoalbuminaemia (result from abnormal synthesis, increased metabolism or loss) It maintains capillary osmotic pressure Carrier protein for drugs, hormones, enzymes & metabolites
69 Plasma protein Fraction Partially purified albumin Contains ≈ 85% albumin & 15% other plasma proteins
70 3- Immune Globulins Contains immune IgG antibodies, prepared from pools of plasma. For disease prophylaxis, hepatitis A, measles, varicella and rubella. For the treatment of hypogammaglobulin- emia and agammaglobulinemia.
71 Immune Serum Globulin (ISG) Primarily IgG Ab Prevention of some viral diseases Hypogammaglobulinemia Congenital immune deficiency Given by IM injection (aggregates of IgG)
72 Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) Contains Hepatitis B immune antibodies. From plasma of donors with high titer of Ab to HBsAg Provides passive immunization for HBV. For treatment after exposure to HBsAg. For the prevention of maternally transferred HBV (perinatal exposure).
73 Varicella-Zoster immune globulin (VZIG) Derived from patients had recent Herpes Zoster infections Herpes Zoster infections result in severe fatal infection in immunocompromised individuals Passive administration of VZIG during 72 hours of exposure can prevent or attenuate infection
74 Rh Immune Globulin (RhIG) Derived from Rh -ve individuals Contains IgG antibodies to the D antigen on red blood cells. Given during pregnancy and post-natally to Rh negative mothers to prevent the development of anti-D and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-D. Given prophylacticaly following abortion, or invasive maternal procedures (e.g., amniocentesis).
75 Tetanus Immune Globulin (TIG) Prepared from individuals specifically immunized for tetanus toxoid Available for individuals at risk following injury
76 Changes in stored blood: –Certain percent of RBC are destroyed, in good anticoagulant only 10-20 % of RBC are destroyed. –Blood become acidic. –Elevation in K concentration which is bad for heart. –Platelets will die within few hours after collection. So there will no Plts. –WBC are deteriorated also (no WBC in old blood). –Activity of coagulation factors will be grossly reduced (VIII, V).
78 Granulocytes Neutrophils are the most numerous, involved in phagocytosis of bacteria/fungi Although rare, it is useful for infants with bacteremia Prepared by hemapheresis ≥ 1.0 x 10 10 Maintained at room temp for 24 hours