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Blood Components Dosage And Their Administration

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Components Dosage And Their Administration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Components Dosage And Their Administration

2 Effective blood transfusion therapy depends on availability of different blood components
Components used separately or in combination can meet most patients transfusion needs and keep the risk of transfusion to minimum

3 Separation of blood components are desirable because
Separation of blood components allows optimal survival for each component Allows transfusing specific blood components according to the need of the patient Allows use of unnecessary component which may be contraindicated in a patient

4 4. Several patients can be treated from one unit of donated blood
5. Use of blood components supplements blood supply and adds to the blood inventory


6 Component preparation
Plasma + Platelets Buffy RBC Principle - Differential centrifugation Red cells Packed cells Red cells + additive Plasma Bank plasma Fresh frozen Cryo supernate Platelets Platelet rich concentrate Platelet rich plasma Cryoprecipitate Whole blood

7 DEFINITIONS BLOOD PRODUCT = Any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood WHOLE BLOOD = Unseparated blood collected into an approved container containing an anticoagulant preservative solution BLOOD COMPONENT = 1. A constituent of blood , separated from whole blood such as Red cell concentrate Plasma Platelet concentrates 2. Plasma or platelets collected by apheresis 3. Cryoprecipitate prepared from fresh frozen plasma

8 Blood Components THE PRBC Storage - 2 – 6 O C Unit of issue
- 1 donation ( unit or pack ) Administration - ABO & Rh compatible - Never add medication to a unit - Complete transfusion within 4 hrs of commencement Member 1

9 Blood Components 2. Red cell concentrate ( packed red blood cells )- whole blood without plasma. Hct % , Hb approximately 20 g /100 ml

10 Indications Trauma - Acute blood loss with > 20% loss of blood volume Surgery - Trigger – 10gm% - 8gm% Rate of development of anemia, General condition and type of surger Radiotherapy

11 Dosage & Administration
Dosage - 1 unit/10 kg body wt Adult dose is 4-8 units Administration - Preferably ABO & Rh group specific but not essential Other groups can be used 11

12 PLATELETS Platelet units can be either
Random donor units Apheresis units 1 random donor unit contains 55 x109 platelets 1 apheresis unit contains 240x109

13 Indications Production - Aplasia / Neoplasia
Usage - TTP(thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), DIC(disseminated intravascular coagulation) Destruction – immune thrombocytopenic purpura.Sequestration – Hyper- splenism 13

14 Guidelines for Platelet Tx.
Mild - 50,000-1,00,000/µl Tx - usually not required Moderate - 20,000-50,000/µl Tx-if symptomatic or has to undergo surgery/trauma Severe - < 20,000/µl Risk of bleeding - high Prophylactic Tx 14

15 Indications for platelet transfusion
BLEEDING due to thrombocytopaenia Due to platelet dysfunction Prevention of spontaneous bleeding with counts < 20,000

Stored at Degree celcius. Constantly agitated Only last for 5 days Infused in 30 mins

17 Fresh Frozen plasma Fresh frozen plasma – labile & nonlabile clotting factors, albumin and immunoglobulin. Factor VIII ( 8 ) level at least 70 % of normal fresh plasma level Storage - 20 C for 1 yr, - 65 C for 7 yrs. Before use thawed at 37 o C

18 Fresh frozen plasma Indications - Replacement of multiple coagulation factor deficiencies eg Liver disease Anticoagulant overdose Depletion of coagulation factors in pts receiving large volume transfusions DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

19 Indication FRESH FROZEN PLASMA factor deficiencies :- Contraindication
Clinically significant deficiency of Factors II, V, X, XI Replacement of multiple coagulation factor deficiencies :- liver disease , warfarin treatment, dilutional and consumption coagulopathy Contraindication Volume expansion Immunoglobulin replacement Nutritional support Wound healing

Acute allergic reaction are common Anaphylactic reaction may occur Hypovolemia alone is not an indication for use Dosage - Initial dose of ml / kg Administration Must be ABO compatible, Rh not required Infuse as soon as possible after thawing ( within 6 hrs ) using standard blood administration set 30/11/49 MD-3-49

21 FFP Fresh Frozen Plasma
Plasma collected from single donor units or by apheresis Frozen within 8 hours of collection -40o C Can last for a year

22 Dosage & Administration for FFP
Dosage ml/Kg(Approx 2-3 bags for an adult) Administration - Thawed at +37o C before transfusion ABO compatible Group AB plasma can be used for all patient

23 Do`s and Dont`s In Blood and Blood Components

24 DO`S Complete the blood request form Order blood in advance, if possible Provide clear information on blood products being requested, number of units requested, reason for transfusion, urgency

25 Risk Benefit Analysis risk > benefit benefit > risk why not
Hb gm/dl why not transfuse why transfuse individual patient factors decide transfusion trigger

26 Time Limits for Infusion
Blood/ Start infusion Complete infusion blood product Whole blood/ within 30 min. of within 4 hour red cells removing pack (less in high from ambient temperature) refrigerator Platelet immediately within 20 min concentrates FFP within 30 min within 20 min

Consent from patient and/or relatives Reason for transfusion Signature of the prescribing clinician Pre-transfusion checks of : patient’s identity, blood pack, compatibility label signature of the person performing the check Transfusion type and volume of component, donation number, blood group, time at which transfusion commenced, signature of person administering the transfusion Any transfusion reaction Return the transfusion slip to the blood bank

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