Presentation on theme: "By Dr. Ahmed Mostafa Assist. Prof. of anesthesia & I.C.U."— Presentation transcript:
By Dr. Ahmed Mostafa Assist. Prof. of anesthesia & I.C.U.
Intravenous fluids: A- Crystalloid solutions: Types: 1-Hypotonic solutions: (maintenance type solutions) i.e. dextrose 5% in water. 2-Isotonic solutions: (replacement type solutions). Uses: for replacement of losses. e.g.* lactated ringer’s solution: Most physiological due to it has the least effect on ECF composition even with large volumes. *Normal saline: When used in large amount, it produces a dilutional hyperchloraemic acidosis. 3-Hypertonic solutions: It should be given in central venous line slowly. e.g., - 3% saline: used in treatment of severe symptomatic hyponatraemia. - 7.5% saline: used in hypovolaemic shock
B- Colloid solutions:. Uses: Fluid resuscitation e.g., hemorrhagic shock. Severe hypo-albuminaemia e.g., Albumin. Types: a- Blood derived colloids. 1. Human albumin: it contain albumin only. 2. Plasma protein fraction: contain albumin + & globulins. b- Synthetic colloids: 1- Dextrose starches (Max. dose 1.5 L) Disadvantages: Allergy, Renal failure, Interfere with blood typing, Bleeding time.
2- Gelatins: (Max. dose 1.5 L) Disadvantages: Allergy. 3- Heta starch: Advantages: Not affect coagulation. Not affect bleeding time. No allergy. Very effective. Less expensive than albumin.
Blood loss and transfusion therapy Estimation of blood loss: - Blood in suction container. - Visually estimating the blood on surgical sponges & pads. *Fully soaked sponge (4 x 4 cm) holds 10 ml of blood. *Fully soaked pads holds 100 – 150ml blood. Better by weighting sponges & pads before & after use.
Blood loss and transfusion therapy Determination of transfusion point: 1. Blood loss > 10 – 20% of their blood volume. 2. Hemoglobin reaches 7 – 10 gm/dl according to patient condition. 3. Haematocrit: 20 – 30%. N.B.: Normal blood volume. - Adult 75ml/kg -neonates 90ml/kg - Pediatric 80 ml/kg.
Blood loss and transfusion therapy Replacing blood loss: * Before reaching transfusion point: - Crystalloid: 3- 4 times the volume of blood loss. Or - colloids: 1:1 times the volume of blood loss. * After reaching transfusion point: Whole blood or packed R.B.Cs - Each one unit of whole blood Hb 0.5:1gm/dl. - Each one unit of R.B.Cs Hb 1- 2 gm/dl.
Blood components 4-Platelets: (unit 50 – 70ml). - Each unit increases platelets by 5000 – 10000. - Stored at 20 – 24 ºC for 5 days. - Used in: * platelets * Platelets dysfunction. 5-Granulocyte transfusion: Used in bacterial infections not responding to antibiotics. 6-Cryoprecipitate: contain factor VIII Used in hemophilia.