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Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood

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1 Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood
11.2 The Blood Cells 11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis 11.4 Capillary Exchange 11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions 11.6 Effects of Aging

2 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood
Objectives: Describe, in general, the composition of _________________________. Divide the ___________________ of blood into three categories, and discuss each category. Describe the composition of _____________ and the specific functions of the plasma proteins.

3 Composition of Blood Plasma (55%) Buffy coat Formed elements (45%)
WBCs and blood ____________________…top Buffy coat Thin, shiny layer in middle Formed elements (45%) RBCs, heavier because of _______________ Percentage of blood attributed to formed __________________ is called the hematocrit.

4 Function 1: Transport Moves from _________________ to all organs.
Picks up __________________ from lungs and nutrients from digestive tract and transports these to tissues. Picks up cellular __________________, such as carbon dioxide Transports hormones and messenger chemicals for various organs and _______________.

5 Function 2: Defense Defends against pathogens (_________________ and viruses). Removes ______________ and dying cells Some WBCs can ‘eat’ ____________________. Blood clotting to prevent blood loss. (platelets and plasma __________________)

6 Function 3: Regulation Regulate body temperature by picking up heat from ___________________ muscles. Uses concentration gradient (________________ __________) to transfer heat to other parts of the body. Salts and plasma proteins keep osmotic __________________ in normal range. Buffers in the blood keep the pH relatively constant at ___________

7 Plasma Composition 92% is __________________.
8% remaining is salts (ions) and ______________ molecules. Small: Glucose, amino acids, ______________ Large: _________________ and plasma proteins.

8 Plasma Proteins Functions
Made in __________________ Help ________________ the blood and maintain pH (homeostasis) Albumins contribute to the osmotic __________________. Antibodies made by WBCs help fight infection (gamma globulins) Transport different molecules. Fibrinogen and prothrombin are necessary for ______________________.

9 11.2 The Blood Cells Objectives:
Explain the hematopoietic role of _________ _____________in the red bone marrow. Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of ______________ blood cells and _______________ blood cells.

10 Production of RBCs Hematopoiesis: Process by which formed ___________________ are made (RBCs) Multipotent stem cells: red ________________ marrow cells that mature into all the various types of blood cells. May be able to ________________________ the body’s tissues in the laboratory.

11 Red Blood Cells Structure
Small, bioconcave disks that lack a _________________ when mature Function Transport _________________________ Life Cycle Live only about _______________ days Aka erythrocytes, formed from red bone marrow stem cells Erythropoietin: hormone that helps induce RBC production; abused by athletes Macrophages in _______________ and spleen engulf and ‘eat’ RBCs

12 White Blood Cells Structure
Larger, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and are ___________________ Function Fight infection, destroy dead or dying body cells, and recognize and kill ____________________ cells…all this helps maintain homeostasis Life Cycle Produced by red bone marrow, can be found in tissue fluid and ___________________ Many live only a few days when they fight infection Others live months or __________________

13 11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis
Objectives: Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of _____________________. Describe the ______________ events of hemostasis and the reactions necessary to coagulation. Discuss __________________ of hemostasis.

14 Platelets Structure Function Life Cycle
____________________________; fragmented from megakaryocytes that develop in the red bone marrow Function Necessary for hemostasis _______________________________________ Life Cycle Because they have no nucleus, they last at most _____________ days

15 Hemostasis Vascular Spasm
Constriction of _________________ muscle layer in a broken blood vessel is the immediate response to injury Platelets ______________________ seratonin that prolongs smooth muscle contraction Platelet __________________________ Formation Platelets adhere to _____________________________ fibers that are exposed when blood vessels break As platelets build up, a platelet plug forms Coagulation Blood _____________________ Fibrinogen and prothrombin participate in blood clotting

16 Coagulation Requires protein clotting __________________; most produced by liver Intrinsic mechanism: blood will coagulate in a ____________________________________ Extrinsic mechanism: activated when ______________ tissues release tissue thromboplastin Four steps: 1) Prothrombin activator is formed. 2) Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin. 3) Thrombin severs two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecules; they join end-to-end, forming fibrin. 4) Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area of the blood vessel and provide framework for clot.

17 Hemostasis Disorders Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia
__________________ platelet count autoimmune; your antibodies ________________ platelets Megakaryocytes in red bone marrow are destroyed Hemophilia _______________________ (inherited) Deficiencies of clotting factors Hemophilia A: lack clotting factor _____________ and is most severe

18 11.4 Capillary Exchange Objectives:
Describe capillary _______________ within the tissues. Oxygen and nutrients leave a capillary. Cellular _______________ (carbon dioxide) enter the capillary. In the lungs, it’s reversed. ______________ enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves.

19 11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions
Objectives: Explain the ______________ and Rh systems of blood typing. Explain agglutination and its relationship to __________________________.

20 ABO Blood Groups + Rh Factor
Type A and B blood are _____________________. Type O blood is recessive. Rh positive is dominant and Rh negative is ___________________.

21 Transfusions Agglutination: __________________ of RBCs
Happens when transfusions are not _______________________.

22 11.6 Effects of Aging Objectives:
Name the blood ___________________ that are commonly seen as we age. Anemias, leukemias, and clotting disorders. _______________ deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia (B12 deficient). Leukemia is ________________ that is genetic and environmental. Thromboembolism occurs because arteries contain ________________________.

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