Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood 11.2 The Blood Cells 11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis 11.4 Capillary Exchange 11.5 Blood Typing."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood 11.2 The Blood Cells 11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis 11.4 Capillary Exchange 11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions 11.6 Effects of Aging
11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood Objectives: Describe, in general, the composition of _________________________. Divide the ___________________ of blood into three categories, and discuss each category. Describe the composition of _____________ and the specific functions of the plasma proteins.
Composition of Blood Plasma (55%) WBCs and blood ____________________…top Buffy coat Thin, shiny layer in middle Formed elements (45%) RBCs, heavier because of _______________ Percentage of blood attributed to formed __________________ is called the hematocrit.
Function 1: Transport Moves from _________________ to all organs. Picks up __________________ from lungs and nutrients from digestive tract and transports these to tissues. Picks up cellular __________________, such as carbon dioxide Transports hormones and messenger chemicals for various organs and _______________.
Function 2: Defense Defends against pathogens (_________________ and viruses). Removes ______________ and dying cells Some WBCs can ‘eat’ ____________________. Blood clotting to prevent blood loss. (platelets and plasma __________________)
Function 3: Regulation Regulate body temperature by picking up heat from ___________________ muscles. Uses concentration gradient (________________ __________) to transfer heat to other parts of the body. Salts and plasma proteins keep osmotic __________________ in normal range. Buffers in the blood keep the pH relatively constant at ___________
Plasma Composition 92% is __________________. 8% remaining is salts (ions) and ______________ molecules. Small: Glucose, amino acids, ______________ Large: _________________ and plasma proteins.
Plasma Proteins Functions Made in __________________ Help ________________ the blood and maintain pH (homeostasis) Albumins contribute to the osmotic __________________. Antibodies made by WBCs help fight infection (gamma globulins) Transport different molecules. Fibrinogen and prothrombin are necessary for ______________________.
11.2 The Blood Cells Objectives: Explain the hematopoietic role of _________ _____________in the red bone marrow. Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of ______________ blood cells and _______________ blood cells.
Production of RBCs Hematopoiesis: Process by which formed ___________________ are made (RBCs) Multipotent stem cells: red ________________ marrow cells that mature into all the various types of blood cells. May be able to ________________________ the body’s tissues in the laboratory.
Red Blood Cells Structure Small, bioconcave disks that lack a _________________ when mature Function Transport _________________________ Life Cycle Live only about _______________ days Aka erythrocytes, formed from red bone marrow stem cells Erythropoietin: hormone that helps induce RBC production; abused by athletes Macrophages in _______________ and spleen engulf and ‘eat’ RBCs
White Blood Cells Structure Larger, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and are ___________________ Function Fight infection, destroy dead or dying body cells, and recognize and kill ____________________ cells…all this helps maintain homeostasis Life Cycle Produced by red bone marrow, can be found in tissue fluid and ___________________ Many live only a few days when they fight infection Others live months or __________________
11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis Objectives: Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of _____________________. Describe the ______________ events of hemostasis and the reactions necessary to coagulation. Discuss __________________ of hemostasis.
Platelets Structure ____________________________; fragmented from megakaryocytes that develop in the red bone marrow Function Necessary for hemostasis _______________________________________ Life Cycle Because they have no nucleus, they last at most _____________ days
Hemostasis Vascular Spasm Constriction of _________________ muscle layer in a broken blood vessel is the immediate response to injury Platelets ______________________ seratonin that prolongs smooth muscle contraction Platelet __________________________ Formation Platelets adhere to _____________________________ fibers that are exposed when blood vessels break As platelets build up, a platelet plug forms Coagulation Blood _____________________ Fibrinogen and prothrombin participate in blood clotting
Coagulation Requires protein clotting __________________; most produced by liver Intrinsic mechanism: blood will coagulate in a ____________________________________ Extrinsic mechanism: activated when ______________ tissues release tissue thromboplastin Four steps: 1) Prothrombin activator is formed. 2) Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin. 3) Thrombin severs two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecules; they join end-to-end, forming fibrin. 4) Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area of the blood vessel and provide framework for clot.
Hemostasis Disorders Thrombocytopenia __________________ platelet count autoimmune; your antibodies ________________ platelets Megakaryocytes in red bone marrow are destroyed Hemophilia _______________________ (inherited) Deficiencies of clotting factors Hemophilia A: lack clotting factor _____________ and is most severe
11.4 Capillary Exchange Objectives: Describe capillary _______________ within the tissues. Oxygen and nutrients leave a capillary. Cellular _______________ (carbon dioxide) enter the capillary. In the lungs, it’s reversed. ______________ enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves.
11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions Objectives: Explain the ______________ and Rh systems of blood typing. Explain agglutination and its relationship to __________________________.
ABO Blood Groups + Rh Factor Type A and B blood are _____________________. Type O blood is recessive. Rh positive is dominant and Rh negative is ___________________.
Transfusions Agglutination: __________________ of RBCs Happens when transfusions are not _______________________.
11.6 Effects of Aging Objectives: Name the blood ___________________ that are commonly seen as we age. Anemias, leukemias, and clotting disorders. _______________ deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia (B12 deficient). Leukemia is ________________ that is genetic and environmental. Thromboembolism occurs because arteries contain ________________________.