Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood 11.2 The Blood Cells11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis11.4 Capillary Exchange11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions11.6 Effects of Aging
211.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood Objectives:Describe, in general, the composition of _________________________.Divide the ___________________ of blood into three categories, and discuss each category.Describe the composition of _____________ and the specific functions of the plasma proteins.
3Composition of Blood Plasma (55%) Buffy coat Formed elements (45%) WBCs and blood ____________________…topBuffy coatThin, shiny layer in middleFormed elements (45%)RBCs, heavier because of _______________Percentage of blood attributed to formed __________________ is called the hematocrit.
4Function 1: Transport Moves from _________________ to all organs. Picks up __________________ from lungs and nutrients from digestive tract and transports these to tissues.Picks up cellular __________________, such as carbon dioxideTransports hormones and messenger chemicals for various organs and _______________.
5Function 2: DefenseDefends against pathogens (_________________ and viruses).Removes ______________ and dying cellsSome WBCs can ‘eat’ ____________________.Blood clotting to prevent blood loss. (platelets and plasma __________________)
6Function 3: RegulationRegulate body temperature by picking up heat from ___________________ muscles.Uses concentration gradient (________________ __________) to transfer heat to other parts of the body.Salts and plasma proteins keep osmotic __________________ in normal range.Buffers in the blood keep the pH relatively constant at ___________
7Plasma Composition 92% is __________________. 8% remaining is salts (ions) and ______________ molecules.Small: Glucose, amino acids, ______________Large: _________________ and plasma proteins.
8Plasma Proteins Functions Made in __________________Help ________________ the blood and maintain pH (homeostasis)Albumins contribute to the osmotic __________________.Antibodies made by WBCs help fight infection (gamma globulins)Transport different molecules.Fibrinogen and prothrombin are necessary for ______________________.
911.2 The Blood Cells Objectives: Explain the hematopoietic role of _________ _____________in the red bone marrow.Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of ______________ blood cells and _______________ blood cells.
10Production of RBCsHematopoiesis: Process by which formed ___________________ are made (RBCs)Multipotent stem cells: red ________________ marrow cells that mature into all the various types of blood cells.May be able to ________________________ the body’s tissues in the laboratory.
11Red Blood Cells Structure Small, bioconcave disks that lack a _________________ when matureFunctionTransport _________________________Life CycleLive only about _______________ daysAka erythrocytes, formed from red bone marrow stem cellsErythropoietin: hormone that helps induce RBC production; abused by athletesMacrophages in _______________ and spleen engulf and ‘eat’ RBCs
12White Blood Cells Structure Larger, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and are ___________________FunctionFight infection, destroy dead or dying body cells, and recognize and kill ____________________ cells…all this helps maintain homeostasisLife CycleProduced by red bone marrow, can be found in tissue fluid and ___________________Many live only a few days when they fight infectionOthers live months or __________________
1311.3 Platelets and Hemostasis Objectives:Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of _____________________.Describe the ______________ events of hemostasis and the reactions necessary to coagulation.Discuss __________________ of hemostasis.
14Platelets Structure Function Life Cycle ____________________________; fragmented from megakaryocytes that develop in the red bone marrowFunctionNecessary for hemostasis_______________________________________Life CycleBecause they have no nucleus, they last at most _____________ days
15Hemostasis Vascular Spasm Constriction of _________________ muscle layer in a broken blood vessel is the immediate response to injuryPlatelets ______________________ seratonin that prolongs smooth muscle contractionPlatelet __________________________ FormationPlatelets adhere to _____________________________ fibers that are exposed when blood vessels breakAs platelets build up, a platelet plug formsCoagulationBlood _____________________Fibrinogen and prothrombin participate in blood clotting
16CoagulationRequires protein clotting __________________; most produced by liverIntrinsic mechanism: blood will coagulate in a ____________________________________Extrinsic mechanism: activated when ______________ tissues release tissue thromboplastinFour steps: 1) Prothrombin activator is formed. 2) Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin. 3) Thrombin severs two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecules; they join end-to-end, forming fibrin. 4) Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area of the blood vessel and provide framework for clot.
17Hemostasis Disorders Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia __________________ platelet countautoimmune; your antibodies ________________ plateletsMegakaryocytes in red bone marrow are destroyedHemophilia_______________________ (inherited)Deficiencies of clotting factorsHemophilia A: lack clotting factor _____________ and is most severe
1811.4 Capillary Exchange Objectives: Describe capillary _______________ within the tissues.Oxygen and nutrients leave a capillary. Cellular _______________ (carbon dioxide) enter the capillary.In the lungs, it’s reversed. ______________ enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves.
1911.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions Objectives:Explain the ______________ and Rh systems of blood typing.Explain agglutination and its relationship to __________________________.
20ABO Blood Groups + Rh Factor Type A and B blood are _____________________.Type O blood is recessive.Rh positive is dominant and Rh negative is ___________________.
21Transfusions Agglutination: __________________ of RBCs Happens when transfusions are not _______________________.
2211.6 Effects of Aging Objectives: Name the blood ___________________ that are commonly seen as we age.Anemias, leukemias, and clotting disorders._______________ deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia (B12 deficient).Leukemia is ________________ that is genetic and environmental.Thromboembolism occurs because arteries contain ________________________.