Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11: Blood 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood 11.2 The Blood Cells11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis11.4 Capillary Exchange11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions11.6 Effects of Aging
2 11.1 The Composition and Functions of Blood Objectives:Describe, in general, the composition of _________________________.Divide the ___________________ of blood into three categories, and discuss each category.Describe the composition of _____________ and the specific functions of the plasma proteins.
3 Composition of Blood Plasma (55%) Buffy coat Formed elements (45%) WBCs and blood ____________________…topBuffy coatThin, shiny layer in middleFormed elements (45%)RBCs, heavier because of _______________Percentage of blood attributed to formed __________________ is called the hematocrit.
4 Function 1: Transport Moves from _________________ to all organs. Picks up __________________ from lungs and nutrients from digestive tract and transports these to tissues.Picks up cellular __________________, such as carbon dioxideTransports hormones and messenger chemicals for various organs and _______________.
5 Function 2: DefenseDefends against pathogens (_________________ and viruses).Removes ______________ and dying cellsSome WBCs can ‘eat’ ____________________.Blood clotting to prevent blood loss. (platelets and plasma __________________)
6 Function 3: RegulationRegulate body temperature by picking up heat from ___________________ muscles.Uses concentration gradient (________________ __________) to transfer heat to other parts of the body.Salts and plasma proteins keep osmotic __________________ in normal range.Buffers in the blood keep the pH relatively constant at ___________
7 Plasma Composition 92% is __________________. 8% remaining is salts (ions) and ______________ molecules.Small: Glucose, amino acids, ______________Large: _________________ and plasma proteins.
8 Plasma Proteins Functions Made in __________________Help ________________ the blood and maintain pH (homeostasis)Albumins contribute to the osmotic __________________.Antibodies made by WBCs help fight infection (gamma globulins)Transport different molecules.Fibrinogen and prothrombin are necessary for ______________________.
9 11.2 The Blood Cells Objectives: Explain the hematopoietic role of _________ _____________in the red bone marrow.Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of ______________ blood cells and _______________ blood cells.
10 Production of RBCsHematopoiesis: Process by which formed ___________________ are made (RBCs)Multipotent stem cells: red ________________ marrow cells that mature into all the various types of blood cells.May be able to ________________________ the body’s tissues in the laboratory.
11 Red Blood Cells Structure Small, bioconcave disks that lack a _________________ when matureFunctionTransport _________________________Life CycleLive only about _______________ daysAka erythrocytes, formed from red bone marrow stem cellsErythropoietin: hormone that helps induce RBC production; abused by athletesMacrophages in _______________ and spleen engulf and ‘eat’ RBCs
12 White Blood Cells Structure Larger, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and are ___________________FunctionFight infection, destroy dead or dying body cells, and recognize and kill ____________________ cells…all this helps maintain homeostasisLife CycleProduced by red bone marrow, can be found in tissue fluid and ___________________Many live only a few days when they fight infectionOthers live months or __________________
13 11.3 Platelets and Hemostasis Objectives:Describe the structure, function, and life cycle of _____________________.Describe the ______________ events of hemostasis and the reactions necessary to coagulation.Discuss __________________ of hemostasis.
14 Platelets Structure Function Life Cycle ____________________________; fragmented from megakaryocytes that develop in the red bone marrowFunctionNecessary for hemostasis_______________________________________Life CycleBecause they have no nucleus, they last at most _____________ days
15 Hemostasis Vascular Spasm Constriction of _________________ muscle layer in a broken blood vessel is the immediate response to injuryPlatelets ______________________ seratonin that prolongs smooth muscle contractionPlatelet __________________________ FormationPlatelets adhere to _____________________________ fibers that are exposed when blood vessels breakAs platelets build up, a platelet plug formsCoagulationBlood _____________________Fibrinogen and prothrombin participate in blood clotting
16 CoagulationRequires protein clotting __________________; most produced by liverIntrinsic mechanism: blood will coagulate in a ____________________________________Extrinsic mechanism: activated when ______________ tissues release tissue thromboplastinFour steps: 1) Prothrombin activator is formed. 2) Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin. 3) Thrombin severs two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecules; they join end-to-end, forming fibrin. 4) Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area of the blood vessel and provide framework for clot.
17 Hemostasis Disorders Thrombocytopenia Hemophilia __________________ platelet countautoimmune; your antibodies ________________ plateletsMegakaryocytes in red bone marrow are destroyedHemophilia_______________________ (inherited)Deficiencies of clotting factorsHemophilia A: lack clotting factor _____________ and is most severe
18 11.4 Capillary Exchange Objectives: Describe capillary _______________ within the tissues.Oxygen and nutrients leave a capillary. Cellular _______________ (carbon dioxide) enter the capillary.In the lungs, it’s reversed. ______________ enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves.
19 11.5 Blood Typing and Transfusions Objectives:Explain the ______________ and Rh systems of blood typing.Explain agglutination and its relationship to __________________________.
20 ABO Blood Groups + Rh Factor Type A and B blood are _____________________.Type O blood is recessive.Rh positive is dominant and Rh negative is ___________________.
21 Transfusions Agglutination: __________________ of RBCs Happens when transfusions are not _______________________.
22 11.6 Effects of Aging Objectives: Name the blood ___________________ that are commonly seen as we age.Anemias, leukemias, and clotting disorders._______________ deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia (B12 deficient).Leukemia is ________________ that is genetic and environmental.Thromboembolism occurs because arteries contain ________________________.