Presentation on theme: "To [infinitive marker] (1) goes before the base form of the verb (e.g. do, be, have, etc.) and is used after certain verbs, adjectives, nouns and wh- words:"— Presentation transcript:
to [infinitive marker] (1) goes before the base form of the verb (e.g. do, be, have, etc.) and is used after certain verbs, adjectives, nouns and wh- words: I’d like to pay; she was afraid to ask; they have the ability to win; I don’t know what to wear tonight. (2) substitutes for the infinitive: don’t go if you don’t want to. (3) in order to: I’m writing to ask about the job. (4) preposition →to Grammar patterns (1) 1. Verb + to + infinitive Jeff has agreed to give a quote 2. Verb + NP + to + infinitive They ordered the youth to empty his pockets 3. Verb + wh-word + to + infinitive I don’t know where to go this summer 4. Verb + NP + wh-word + to + infinitive Can you tell me when to get off, please? 5. Clause + to + infinitive The bus stopped to let some passengers off 6. NP + to+ infintive Do you have permission to make copies? 7. Adjective + to + infintive It’s sure to rain
To (2) Grammar patterns (2) 1. To + NP (place): is this the way to the beach? 2. From + NP + + +NP (time): The office is open from Monday to Friday. 3. Verb + NP + to + NP: I sent a text message to Diana. 4. Verb + to + NP + that-clause: Evelyb explained to the police that she was a tourist.
To (2) Collocations To follows these adjectives: similar, different, identical, equal, close, next, married, engaged, kind, polite, rude, cruel, nice, friendly, mean, horrible: e.g. He’s so rude to the customers. To combines with these verbs: listen, see, belong, object, refer, appeal, lead, get, take: Can you see (=attend to) to the potatoe while I chop the onions? To forms the 3rd element of a number of a three- word phrasal verbs: face up to; get down to; lead up to; look forward to; look up to; get/be used to: e.g. I look forward to hearing from you
To (2) Set phrases Face to face /back to back/chick to chick: We’ll do the interwiew face to face Ten to one / a hundred to one: There’s a million to one chance you’ll win the lottery. To and fro: I’ve benn going to and fro all mmorning (from one place to another)
to Collocations Verbs that occur with grammar pattern 1 are : like, begin, attempt, fail, continue and agree Prices have continued to rise. The most frequent nouns in grammar pattern 6 are: time, thing, way, stuff, place, a lot. What a horrible thing to say I’ve got a lot to do this afternoon
to Set phrases in order to / so as (not) to Salmon travel upstream in order to breed To be honest / to tell you the truth etc. I think they should get a new manager, to be honest …enough to + infinitive She’s old enough to drive bot not enough to vote Too (…) to + infinitive It was too dark to see clearly