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Blood. Properties of blood Viscous Temp 100.4F pH range 7.35- 7.45 (alkaline) 5-6 L males; 4-5 L females 8% body weight.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood. Properties of blood Viscous Temp 100.4F pH range 7.35- 7.45 (alkaline) 5-6 L males; 4-5 L females 8% body weight."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood


3 Properties of blood Viscous Temp 100.4F pH range 7.35- 7.45 (alkaline) 5-6 L males; 4-5 L females 8% body weight


5 Functions of Blood Transport (Co 2, O 2, waste, nutrients, hormones) Maintenance of body temperature, pH, H 2 O content cells Protection against foreign substances; antibodies Clot formation

6 Plasma Contents Liquid part of blood. –91% water ; 9 % solutes Proteins –Albumins: made by liver; viscosity, osmotic pressure –Globulins: Transports other molecules –Fibrinogen: blood clotting Ions: involved in osmosis, membrane potentials, and acid-base balance Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, vitamins

7 Plasma Contents Cont’d. Waste Products: –Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts –Bilirubin –Lactic acid –Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen Regulatory substances: hormones, enzymes



10 Formed Elements RBC WBC Platelet (megakaryocyte)

11 Hematopoiesis

12 Hematopoiesis (in bone marrow)

13 White Blood Cells (WBCs) Leukocytes Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris Movements –Ameboid: pseudopods –Diapedesis: cells move through blood vessels –Chemotaxis: attraction to and movement toward foreign materials or damaged cells

14 White Blood Cells 1% normal blood Agranular V. Granular

15 Neutrophils Lobed nuclei connected by filaments 50-70% WBCs Last 1-2 days Move into tissues and phagocytize substances Fight normal infections bacterial PUS!

16 Eosinophils Bi-lobed nucleus; granules stain red (“eos” = dawn) Enter tissues during inflammatory response 1-4% WBCs –Parasitic infections; Allergic response

17 Basophils Indistinct lobed nucleus Less than 1% WBCs Release histamine (vasodilation) and heparin (anticoagulant) Inflammatory response & allergic reactions

18 Monocytes Kidney shaped or round nucleus 2-8% WBCs Become macrophages Macrophages found in tissues (spleen) Osteoclasts & Microglia Fight chronic infections, tumors, remove old tissue Present antigens to lymphocytes

19 Lymphocytes Big, round nucleus 25-40% WBCs B-cells: produced in Bone marrow –Produce antibodies T-cells: produced in marrow and migrate to Thymus to mature IMMUNE SYSTEM Antigen: foreign protein Antibody: binds to antigen and causes death or removal by WBC

20 The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection

21 Components of the immune system

22 Lymphocytes B Cells –Produced/ mature in red marrow; then move to lymph ts. –Produce antibodies that battle bacteria and some viruses T Cells –Mature in Thymus gland –Directly contact antigens –Affect mostly abnormal body cells (cancerous/ virus infected, transplant ts.)

23 Innate Immunity (non-specific) : Immunity an organism is born with u Genetically determined u All antigens attacked equally by neutrophils, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils u Skin, saliva, tears, stomach acids, mucus Acquired Immunity (specific): Immunity that an organism develops during lifetime after exposure to antigen u Not genetically determined u Based on immune system recognizing, remembering, and responding to antigens u Active  body exposed to antigen (naturally or thru vaccine) and generates an immune response u Passive  antibodies (antiserum) introduced to body; no immune response c=generated; short-lived


25 Red Blood Cells (RBCs) Erythrocytes 95% “formed elements” Biconcave discs… WHY? Anucleate Antigens on surface determine blood type

26 Erythropoiesis Lifespan= 120 days Spleen and liver “clean-up” –bilirubin Takes 4 days to make one RBC; 2.5 million made each second! Reticulocytes: immature RBCs Erythropoietin: hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O 2 levels

27 Erythrocyte function: Transport Oxygen from lungs to tissues: 98.5% attached to hemoglobin; 1.5% dissolved in plasma Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. –7% dissolved in plasma –23% in combination with hemoglobin –70% transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of H 2 O and CO 2 because of enzyme carbonic anhydrase found within RBCs

28 Hemoglobin Hemoglobin (Hgb/ Hb) –Heme (iron): Fe + Protein (globin) –Each Hgb carries 4 O 2 molecules (oxyhemoglobin) –Each RBC carries 250 million Hgb molecules…

29 Regulation of blood pH  More H+ causes blood to be more acidic  Fewer H+ causes blood to be less acidic  70% of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in blood is dissolved in plasma forming carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 )  H 2 CO 3 is then dissociated into HCO 3 - and H +  H 2 CO 3 acts as a hydrogen ion donor (acid)  HCO 3 - is the hydrogen ion acceptor (base)  HCO 3 - /CO 2 buffer system is extremely important because it can be rapidly readjusted in alkalosis and acidosis

30 Acidosis  Too Much CO 2 or Too Little HCO 3 - Will Cause Acidosis  The balance will swing toward a low pH (acidosis) if 1. CO 2 is raised  hypoventilation (pneumonia, emphysema) 2. HCO 3 - lowered  Metabolic conditions such as ketoacidosis caused by excess fat metabolism (diabetes mellitus) will lower bicarbonate Symptoms may include: Confusion Easy fatigue Lethargy Shortness of breath Sleepiness Compensation for acidosis:  Remove CO2: occurs first because lungs work faster than kidneys  Add HCO 3 -

31 Alkalosis  Too little CO 2 or Too much HCO 3 Will Cause Alkalosis  The balance will swing toward a higher pH (alkalosis) if 1. CO 2 is lowered (hyperventilation) 2. Bicarbonate is raised (Vomiting reduces stomach acid)  Alkalosis is less common than acidosis Symptoms may include: Deep, rapid breathing Dizziness, agitation; seizures; Compensation for alkalosis:  Add CO2: occurs first because lungs work faster than kidneys  Remove HCO 3 -

32 ABO Blood Groups Rh antigen: another antigen; positive (+) blood has it, negative (-) does not

33 Transfusions Donor: gives blood Recipient: receives blood We have antibodies against antigens that we do not have! Red Cross Facts

34 Thrombocytes Arise from megakaryocytes; anucleate Form platelet plugs (small vessels) Form clots (larger wounds)

35 Hemostasis: “Stop Bleeding”! 1.Vasoconstriction: reduces blood flow 2.Platelet plug formation: platelets attracted to exposed proteins from damaged tissue, attracted to more platelets... ( Positive feedback!) 3.Coagulation: thrombin (enzyme) activates fibrinogens (plasma proteins) when tissue is damaged… clotting factors 4.Dissolution: after epithelial cells rebuild, WBCs destroy clot

36 Blood “Thinners” Heparin inhibits thrombin; isolated from pigs and cows; must be injected; short-lived Coumadin: inhibits processing of vitamin K (needed for liver synthesis of clotting factors); taken orally Aspirin: inhibits platelet activation

37 Coagulation Factors Plasma proteins 13 clotting factors (+ 4 platelet factors) Many made in liver with aid of Vitamin K

38 Clotting Disorders Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) –autoimmune Von Willebrand –Most common bleeding disorder Hemophilia A: missing Factor VIII –80% Hemophilia Hemophilia B: missing Factor IX

39 Anemias: usually refers to a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. This condition also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, or high rates of red blood cell destruction. Iron deficient Pernicious Aplastic Hemolytic


41 Iron-deficiency anemia Lack of iron  usually due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods Microcytic RBCs; low hemoglobin values Symptoms  fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, pallor. (Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications.) People at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia include infants and young children, women, and adults who have internal bleeding.

42 Hemolytic Anemia: is due to high rates of red blood cell destruction. When blood cells die, the body's bone marrow makes more blood cells to replace them. However, in hemolytic anemia, the bone marrow can't make red blood cells fast enough to meet the body's needs. Inherited forms: Sickle Cell Anemia: a serious, inherited disease. In this disease, the body makes abnormal hemoglobin. This causes the red blood cells to have a sickle, or "C," shape. –Sickle cells don't last as long as healthy red blood cells. They usually die after only about 10 to 20 days. The bone marrow can't make new red blood cells fast enough to replace the dying ones. –Sickle cell anemia mainly affects people of African descent. Thalassemias: inherited blood disorders in which the body doesn't make enough of certain types of hemoglobin. This causes the body to make fewer healthy red blood cells than normal. –most often affect people of Southeast Asian, Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Mediterranean, or African origin or descent. Acquired forms: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In this condition, your immune system makes antibodies (proteins) that attack your red blood cells. Why this happens isn't known. AIHA accounts for half of all cases of hemolytic anemia. AIHA may come on very quickly and become serious. It's most common in people older than 40. Rh-Incompatibility: WBC’s of Rh negative mothers can cause hemolytic in second child

43 Acquired aplastic anemia: most common, sometimes temporary. In many people the cause is unknown. Some research suggests that stem cell damage may occur because the body's immune system attacks its own cells by mistake. Inherited aplastic anemia (rare): Certain inherited conditions can damage the stem cells Causes: Toxins, such as pesticides, arsenic, and benzene. Radiation and chemotherapy (treatments for cancer). Infectious diseases, such as hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus, HIV. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Pregnancy. (Aplastic anemia that occurs during pregnancy often goes away after delivery.) Sometimes, cancer from another part of the body can spread to the bone and cause aplastic anemia. Symptoms  irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias, an enlarged heart, heart failure, infections, and bleeding. Severe aplastic anemia can even cause death. Aplastic anemia is a blood disorder in which the body's bone marrow doesn't make enough new blood cells. This is because the bone marrow's stem cells are damaged. (Aplastic anemia also is called bone marrow failure.)

44 Polycythemia Hematocrit over 48% (women) or 52% (men) The extra red blood cells make your blood thicker than normal leading poor circulation and possible to heart attack and stroke Symptoms  headaches, dizziness, itching, and vision problems, such as blurred or double vision, angina (chest pain), and heart failure Causes of Primary polycythemia: DNA mutation causes excess RBC production; Causes of Secondary polycythemia: living at high altitudes as a response to lower oxygen levels; hypoxic diseases, radiation exposure Normal blood Polycythemia vera Erythrocytosis an excess of erythrocytes, (RBCs)

45 Hemochromatosis: iron builds up in body Excess iron can is toxic to organs and causes organ failure. Iron especially builds up in the liver (enlarged liver, liver failure, liver cancer, or cirrhosis ) heart (irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias and heart failure) pancreas (diabetes) Primary hemochromatosis: recessive genetic disorder; one of the most common genetic diseases in the United States; most common in Caucasians of Northern European descent; less common in African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians; more common in men than in women; older people are more likely to develop the disease than younger people. Secondary hemochromatosis : can be caused by thalassemias, other anemias, chronic alcoholism ** Certain factors can affect the severity of the disease. For example, a high intake of vitamin C can make hemochromatosis worse. This is because vitamin C helps your body absorb iron from food**

46 Leukocytosis is an increased number of leukocytes A high white blood cell count usually indicates: An increased production of white blood cells to fight an infection A reaction to a drug that enhances white blood cell production A disease of bone marrow, causing abnormally high production of white blood cells An immune system disorder that increases white blood cell production Specific causes of high white blood cell count include: Leukemia* Measles Myelofibrosis* Other bacterial infections Other viral infections* Polycythemia vera Rheumatoid arthritis* Smoking Tuberculosis* Whooping cough Stress* Tissue damage, such as from burn Allergy, especially severe allergic reactions Drugs, such as corticosteroids and epinephrine

47 Leukopenia – low wbc count Causes: Viral infections that temporarily disrupt bone marrow function Congenital disorders characterized by diminished bone marrow function Cancer or other diseases that damage bone marrow Autoimmune disorders that destroy white blood cells or bone marrow cells Overwhelming infections that use up white blood cells faster than they can be produced Drugs that destroy white blood cells or damage bone marrow Specific causes of low white blood cell count include: Aplastic anemia* Leukemia Lupus-autoimmune disorders* Other congenital disorders Parasitic diseases* Radiation therapy Rheumatoid arthritis* Vitamin deficiencies Certain medications, such as antibiotics and diuretics* Chemotherapy HIV/AIDS/* Hypersplenism Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)Infectious diseases Kostmann's syndrome, a congenital disorder involving low neutrophil production

48 Leukemia Bone marrow produces a high number of abnormal WBCs Chronic: progresses slowlyVs. Acute: progresses quickly Type of leukemia depends on what type bone marrow cell affected (myeloid: early granular WBC or lymphoid: early lymphocyte) –Some types are more common in children or adults Symptoms  Weakness, Fatigue, Anemia, Frequent infections or fever, Weight loss and/or loss of appetite, Increased bruising or bleeding from wounds, Bone pain or joint pains caused by the spread of malignant cells to the surface of the bone or into the joint from the marrow cavity, Enlarged lymph nodes, liver and/or spleen Treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation, medication  GOAL= remission Chronic lymphocytic leukemiaChronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): mostly adults Chronic myeloid leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): mostly adults Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemiaAcute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL): most common in childrem Acute myeloid leukemiaAcute myeloid leukemia (AML): both adults and children

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