2Average adult = 8-10 pints of blood Composition: PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular componentsSerum – plasma after a blood clot is formedCellular elements are red cells, white cells and platelets
3PLASMA Straw colored, contains – Water Blood proteins Plasma proteins FIBRONOGEN – necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liverALBUMIN – from the liver, helps maintain blood’s osmotic pressure and volumePROTHROMBIN – a globulin which helps blood coagulate. Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis.
5Erythrocytes-Red Blood Cell Shape = biconcave discsRBCHEMOGLOBIN – gives red color, heme is iron and globin is protein.Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cellsNormal – men =14-18 gm, women = gm
6Function of Hemoglobin Red cells travel through the lungs whereO2 is carried to tissues and releasedCO2 picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange Arterial blood – lots of oxygen = bright redVenous blood – lots of CO2 = dark crimson
7ERYTHROPOIESIS Manufacture of red blood cells Occurs in bone marrow Red cells live 120 daysOld cells broken down by the spleen and liverHEMOLYSIS – rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease.
8White Blood Cells – LEUKOCYTES Larger than erythrocytes5 typesNormal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800 Types of White CellsNeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLymphocytesMonocytes
9Leukocytes Basophils produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant DIAPEDESIS – when white cells move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue.
10PHAGOCYTOSIS – process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria.
11Inflammation Body’s reaction to chemical or physical trauma PATHOGENIC – disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammationSymptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and painWhy? Bacterial toxins, increased blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues (edema)
12HISTAMINE increases the blood flow to the injured area PUS produced – a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasmaABSCESS – pus-filled cavity below the epidermisPYREXIA – increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus – in response to pathogenic invasion
14InflammationLEUKOCYTOSIS – increase in the number of white cells in response to infectionLEUKOPENIA – decrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiation
15Thrombocytes (Platelets) Smallest of solid components of bloodSynthesized in red marrowNot cells – fragments of megakaryocytesNecessary for the initiation of the blood clotting process
16Coagulation (Clotting) Cut or injury platelets and injured tissue release THROMBOPLASTIN act on PROTHROMBIN in plasma + Calcium ions converts to THROMBIN the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes FIBRINOGEN FIBRIN creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot.
18ANTICOAGULANTS – prevent blood clotting HEPARIN = antiprothrombinPROTHROMBIN – dependent on Vitamin K
19Blood FactsThere are about one billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there are about 40 platelets and one white cell.
20Blood Types Four major types of blood- A, B, AB and O Inherited from parentsDetermined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell
21ANTIBODY – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body. Someone with type A blood has b antibodiesSomeone with type B blood has a antibodiesSomeone with type AB blood has no antibodiesSomeone with type O blood has a and b antibodies
26Disorders of the BloodANEMIADeficiency in number or % of red cells
27IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Usually in women, children and adolescentsDeficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesisTreat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetables
28APLASTIC ANEMIABone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cellsCaused by drugs or radiation therapy
29SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shapeSickle cells break easily and carry less oxygenOccurs primarily in blacksTreatment – blood transfusions
30POLYCYTHEMIA Too many red blood cells are formed May be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitude
31EMBOLISMAir, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passageAlso known as a “moving blood clot”
32THROMBOSIS The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel The blood clot is a THROMBUS
33HEMATOMALocalized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue or space.Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture
34HEMOPHILIA Hereditary Missing clotting factor Blood clots slow or abnormallySex-linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sonsTreat with missing clotting factor, avoid trauma
35THROMBOCYTOPENIANot enough plateletsBlood will not clot properly
36LEUKEMIA Malignant condition Overproduction of immature white blood cellsHinders synthesis of red cells