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Hematology The Study of blood.

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1 Hematology The Study of blood

2 Average adult = 8-10 pints of blood Composition:
PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular components Serum – plasma after a blood clot is formed Cellular elements are red cells, white cells and platelets

3 PLASMA Straw colored, contains – Water Blood proteins Plasma proteins
FIBRONOGEN – necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liver ALBUMIN – from the liver, helps maintain blood’s osmotic pressure and volume PROTHROMBIN – a globulin which helps blood coagulate. Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis.

4 Plasma Nutrients Electrolytes Hormones, vitamins, enzymes
Metabolic waster products

5 Erythrocytes-Red Blood Cell
Shape = biconcave discs RBC HEMOGLOBIN – gives red color, heme is iron and globin is protein. Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cells Normal – men =14-18 gm, women = gm

6 Function of Hemoglobin
Red cells travel through the lungs where O2 is carried to tissues and released CO2 picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange  Arterial blood – lots of oxygen = bright red Venous blood – lots of CO2 = dark crimson

7 ERYTHROPOIESIS Manufacture of red blood cells Occurs in bone marrow
Red cells live 120 days Old cells broken down by the spleen and liver HEMOLYSIS – rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease.

8 White Blood Cells – LEUKOCYTES
Larger than erythrocytes 5 types Normal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800  Types of White Cells Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes

9 Leukocytes Basophils produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant
DIAPEDESIS – when white cells move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue.

10 PHAGOCYTOSIS – process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria.

11 Inflammation Body’s reaction to chemical or physical trauma
PATHOGENIC – disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammation Symptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and pain Why? Bacterial toxins, increased blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues (edema)

12 HISTAMINE increases the blood flow to the injured area
PUS produced – a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasma ABSCESS – pus-filled cavity below the epidermis PYREXIA – increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus – in response to pathogenic invasion

13 Abscess

14 Inflammation LEUKOCYTOSIS – increase in the number of white cells in response to infection LEUKOPENIA – decrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiation

15 Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Smallest of solid components of blood Synthesized in red marrow Not cells – fragments of megakaryocytes Necessary for the initiation of the blood clotting process

16 Coagulation (Clotting)
Cut or injury  platelets and injured tissue release THROMBOPLASTIN  act on PROTHROMBIN in plasma  + Calcium ions converts to THROMBIN  the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes FIBRINOGEN  FIBRIN creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot.


18 ANTICOAGULANTS – prevent blood clotting
HEPARIN = antiprothrombin PROTHROMBIN – dependent on Vitamin K

19 Blood Facts There are about one billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there are about 40 platelets and one white cell.

20 Blood Types Four major types of blood- A, B, AB and O
Inherited from parents Determined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell

21 ANTIBODY – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body. 
Someone with type A blood has b antibodies Someone with type B blood has a antibodies Someone with type AB blood has no antibodies Someone with type O blood has a and b antibodies


Red cells also may contain Rh factor If you have it, you’re Rh + If you don’t, you’re Rh –

24 RH Incompatibilties


26 Disorders of the Blood ANEMIA Deficiency in number or % of red cells 

Usually in women, children and adolescents Deficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesis Treat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetables

28 APLASTIC ANEMIA Bone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cells Caused by drugs or radiation therapy

29 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents
Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shape Sickle cells break easily and carry less oxygen Occurs primarily in blacks Treatment – blood transfusions

30 POLYCYTHEMIA Too many red blood cells are formed
May be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitude

31 EMBOLISM Air, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passage Also known as a “moving blood clot”

32 THROMBOSIS The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel
The blood clot is a THROMBUS

33 HEMATOMA Localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue or space. Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture

34 HEMOPHILIA Hereditary Missing clotting factor
Blood clots slow or abnormally Sex-linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sons Treat with missing clotting factor, avoid trauma

35 THROMBOCYTOPENIA Not enough platelets Blood will not clot properly

36 LEUKEMIA Malignant condition
Overproduction of immature white blood cells Hinders synthesis of red cells

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