Presentation on theme: "Hematology The Study of blood. Average adult = 8- 10 pints of blood Composition: –PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular components –Serum."— Presentation transcript:
Hematology The Study of blood
Average adult = pints of blood Composition: –PLASMA – liquid portion of blood without cellular components –Serum – plasma after a blood clot is formed –Cellular elements are red cells, white cells and platelets
PLASMA Straw colored, contains – –Water –Blood proteins –Plasma proteins FIBRONOGEN – necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liver ALBUMIN – from the liver, helps maintain blood’s osmotic pressure and volume PROTHROMBIN – a globulin which helps blood coagulate. Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis.
Erythrocytes-Red Blood Cell Shape = biconcave discs RBC HEMOGLOBIN – gives red color, heme is iron and globin is protein. Function = transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cells Normal – men =14-18 gm, women = gm
Function of Hemoglobin Red cells travel through the lungs where O 2 is carried to tissues and released CO 2 picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange Arterial blood – lots of oxygen = bright red Venous blood – lots of CO 2 = dark crimson
ERYTHROPOIESIS Manufacture of red blood cells Occurs in bone marrow Red cells live 120 days Old cells broken down by the spleen and liver HEMOLYSIS – rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease.
White Blood Cells – LEUKOCYTES Larger than erythrocytes 5 types Normal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800 Types of White Cells Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes
Leukocytes Basophils produce HEPARIN – an anticoagulant DIAPEDESIS – when white cells move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue.
PHAGOCYTOSIS – process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria.
Inflammation Body’s reaction to chemical or physical trauma PATHOGENIC – disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammation Symptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and pain Why? Bacterial toxins, increased blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues (edema)
HISTAMINE increases the blood flow to the injured area PUS produced – a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasma ABSCESS – pus-filled cavity below the epidermis PYREXIA – increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus – in response to pathogenic invasion
Inflammation LEUKOCYTOSIS – increase in the number of white cells in response to infection LEUKOPENIA – decrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiation
Thrombocytes (Platelets) Smallest of solid components of blood Synthesized in red marrow Not cells – fragments of megakaryocytes Necessary for the initiation of the blood clotting process
Coagulation (Clotting) Cut or injury platelets and injured tissue release THROMBOPLASTIN act on PROTHROMBIN in plasma + Calcium ions converts to THROMBIN the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes FIBRINOGEN FIBRIN creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot.
ANTICOAGULANTS – prevent blood clotting HEPARIN = antiprothrombin PROTHROMBIN – dependent on Vitamin K
Blood Facts There are about one billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there are about 40 platelets and one white cell.
Blood Types Four major types of blood- A, B, AB and O Inherited from parents Determined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell
ANTIBODY – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body. –Someone with type A blood has b antibodies –Someone with type B blood has a antibodies –Someone with type AB blood has no antibodies –Someone with type O blood has a and b antibodies
Blood Types UNIVERSAL DONOR – O UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT – AB Red cells also may contain Rh factor If you have it, you’re Rh + If you don’t, you’re Rh –
Disorders of the Blood ANEMIA Deficiency in number or % of red cells
IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Usually in women, children and adolescents Deficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesis Treat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetables
APLASTIC ANEMIA Bone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cells Caused by drugs or radiation therapy
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shape Sickle cells break easily and carry less oxygen Occurs primarily in blacks Treatment – blood transfusions
POLYCYTHEMIA Too many red blood cells are formed May be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitude
EMBOLISM Air, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passage Also known as a “moving blood clot”
THROMBOSIS The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel The blood clot is a THROMBUS
HEMATOMA Localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue or space. Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture
HEMOPHILIA Hereditary Missing clotting factor Blood clots slow or abnormally Sex-linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sons Treat with missing clotting factor, avoid trauma
THROMBOCYTOPENIA Not enough platelets Blood will not clot properly
LEUKEMIA Malignant condition Overproduction of immature white blood cells Hinders synthesis of red cells