5 Types of WBCs Neutrophils: granululocyte (bacterial and some fungal infections) Lymphocyte: agranulocyte (T&B cells) Monocyte: agranulocyte Eosinophil: granulocyte (allergic reactions, parasitic infections) Basophil: granulocyte
Platelets Thrombocytes Involved in blood clotting Lifespan: live only 10 days Aspirin inactivates the platelets
Red Blood Cell Disorders Iron-deficiency anemia –Insufficient Fe –Affects ______ –Results in_____ –Patient is _____ –Most common type of anemia –Looks?
Red Blood Cell Disorders Aplastic anemia –Failure of ____ to produce enough blood cells Pernicious anemia –Lack of intrinsic factor –Inability to absorb vitamin _____
Sickle Cell Anemia History –Observed in 1910 –1917 found sickled in blood smear –1949 discovered Hemoglobin S during electrophoresis Different amino acid –Sickle Cell Trait
Sickle Cell Trait Hemoglobin AS Heterozygous State ~ 8% of American Blacks Helps against malaria What causes a reaction? Sickle Cell Hemoglobin SS Homozygous State No cure Clinical features: bone and joint abnormalities, enlarged heart, heart murmurs, retinal hemorrhage
Red Blood Cell Disorder Diamond Blackfan Anemia –Rare, 5-7 per million – bone marrow fails to make RBC, severely anemic –Associated with birth defects (most common head and face, arms and hands, heart, genitourinary
White Blood Cell Disorder Leukemia –White blood cell or bone marrow cancer –Two main categories: Acute Chronic –Subcategorized Myelogenous Lymphocytic Cateogories Acute: immature WBC Chronic: mature, abnormal WBC Lymphocytic: affects bone marrow that makes WBC lymphocytes Myelogenous: bone marrow cells that make RBC, Platelets, WBC other than lymphocytes
White Blood Cell Disorders Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Most common type in young children Affects adults, usually over 65 Bone cancer where immature blood cells are made Treatments: good chance for cure in children Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Most often affects adults over 55 Sometimes younger adults, almost never children Bone marrow cancer, progresses slowly Treatments: help control disease
White Blood Cell Disorders Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) Most common in adults More common in men Affects myeloid cells: that make mature RCB, WBC, platelets Rapid forming Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Mainly in adults (rare for children) Progresses slowly
Platelet/Thrombocytes Thrombocytes: nuclear fragments borne from megakaryoblast Activated by clotting proteins in plasma make a plug to stop bleeding
Diseases Thromobocytopenia Abnormally low platelet count Clotting disorders Petechiae, brusing, deep vein thrombosis DVT- blood clot in deep vein. Usually in lower leg, thigh, or pelvis. –What happens if the clot breaks off and gets to the lung?
Other Blood Disorders Hemochromatosis –Absorbs too much Fe from food and vitamins –Fe builds up=Fe overload –Build up can build up over time and damage organs (liver, heart, pancreas) –Causes: heart arrhythmias, cirrhosis Bleeding & Clotting Disorders –Important problem for women because disorders to reproductive issues –Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) –Bleeding & clotting complications of pregnancy –Recurrent fetal loss
Hemophilia Inherited bleeding disorder Blood does not clot Clotting factors are low or none Problems???
Hemolytic disease of the newborn In fetus is Rh+ and mother was Rh- Must have previous Rh+ pregnancy –Antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the RBC –Results in decreased RBC for fetus = death or jaundice Mother has to receive Rhogam injection after every Rh+ pregnancy