5 Stimulus generalization occurs when a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original (responding to any bell sound, no matter what pitch)If stimulus generalization had occurred with someone who had learned to be afraid of the ocean, what other things could cause a fear response in that person? (a lake, river, bathtub, pool)
6 Discrimination is the ability to respond differently to distinct stimuli. (only responding to one type of bell)
7 Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time. The conditioned response (CR) will gradually die out
8 Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possibleWatson showed that fear can be learned through classical conditioning (ex. Sound of a gun shot can cause fear in war vets)Albert was shown a white rat and several other animals. At first Albert was not afraid. Then, the experimenter began making a loud noise behind Albert every time he saw the white rat. Eventually Albert feared the rat without the loud noise. Soon Albert feared all the animals = stimulus generalization.
9 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND ADVERTISING Ways in which classical conditioning helps sell…Pairing popular music together with products in ads to generate positive feelingsConsistently advertising a product on an exciting game show may result in the product itself generating excitementChristmas music played in a story may trigger happy memories in a consumer’s mind persuading them to enter the store.Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).
10 Neutral: beverage product Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place.Neutral: beverage productUCS: barely clothed modelsUCR: pleasant feelingsCS: the productGenerate a list of 5 – 10 things that they have learned through classical conditioning in their lives. Pick one and try to identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR.CR: pleasant feelings
11 Food and Classical Conditioning Taste-aversion - associating a (smell, taste, sound, or sight) with getting sick and thereafter avoiding that particular (smell, taste, sound, or sight) in the future.Helps rats learn not to eat poison.
12 OPERANT CONDITIONINGLearning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in behavioral changeImagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actionsOperant Conditioning involves learned voluntary responses (ones we control)
13 B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory. Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the yearsSkinnerBox
14 Reinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it. Negative reinforcement is when something that is unpleasant is stopped or taken away when something is doneHeadache stops when you take Tylenol so you strengthened the behavior of taking TylenolReinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it.
15 Punishment always weakens a response, rather than strengthening it. Punishment involves decreasing the frequency of a behavior.Punishment always weakens a response, rather than strengthening it.
16 POSITIVE(ADDED)NEGATIVE(SUBTRACTED)REINFORCEMENT(STRENGTHENS)Clean the house and earn $5a coach pats you on the back after a good playa paycheck for working$10 for getting an “A” on your report cardSenior privilege for maintaining good gradesYou buy your child ice cream so they stop naggingYou leave early for school to avoid trafficYou take Tylenol to remove back painPUNISHMENT (WEAKENS)You get your mouth washed out with soap when you curseTouch and hot stove and get burnedGetting a ticket for speedingYou lose your driving privileges for breaking curfewTime out, or the loss of freedom to combat bad behaviorYou pay money for a speeding ticket
17 Negative Reinforcement Cleaning the house to get rid of disgusting mess or cleaning the house to get rid of your mother's nagging Nagging/Mess as negative reinforcer to cleaning.Prisoners try to break out of jail to escape the aversiveness of being locked upTaking aspirin to relieve headacheGood example: headache as negative reinforcer to taking medication
18 Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future.A mother gives her son praise (positive stimulus) for doing homework (behavior).The little boy receives $5.00 (positive stimulus) for every A he earns on his report card (behavior).A father gives his daughter candy (positive stimulus) for cleaning up toys (behavior
19 Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence.Bob does the dishes (behavior) in order to avoid his mother nagging (negative stimulus).Natalie can get up from the dinner table (negative stimulus) when she eats 2 bites of her broccoli (behavior).
20 With negative reinforcement, you are increasing a behavior, whereas with punishment, you are decreasing a behavior.When thinking about reinforcement, always remember that the end result is to try to increase the behavior, whereas punishment procedures are used to decrease behavior
21 ReinforcementFor positive reinforcement, think of it as adding something positive in order to increase a response. For negative reinforcement, think of it as taking something negative away in order to increase a response.
22 Positive PunishmentPositive punishment works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future. The following are some examples of positive punishment:A child picks his nose during class (behavior) and the teacher reprimands him (negative stimulus) in front of his classmates.A child grabs a toy from another child (behavior) and is sent to time out (negative stimulus)
23 Negative PunishmentNegative punishment happens when a certain desired stimulus is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future. The following are some examples of negative punishment:For a child that really enjoys a specific class, such as gym or music classes at school, negative punishment can happen if they are removed from that class (desired stimulus) and sent to the principal’s office because they were acting out/misbehaving (behavior).If a child does not follow directions or acts inappropriately (behavior), he loses a token for good behavior (desired stimulus) that can later be cashed in for a prize.Siblings get in a fight (behavior) over who gets to go first in a game or who gets to play with a new toy, the parent takes the game/toy away (desired stimulus
24 PunishmentWith punishment, always remember that the end result is to try to decrease the undesired behavior. Positive punishment involves adding a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is emitted to decrease future responses. Negative punishment includes taking away a certain desired item after the undesired behavior happens in order to decrease future responses.
25 PRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERS Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that responsePRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERSPrimary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or waterWhen a contractor reinforces something, he is strengthening it.Primary Reinforcement Examples:Dessert as a reward for eating vegetablesDolphin gets a fish for performing trickSecondary reinforcement is a stimulus that we have learned to value (linked to a primary reinforcer)
26 Schedules of Reinforcement Reinforcement is more successful when it DOES NOT follow every desired behaviorINTERVAL SCHEDULES deal with the amount of TIME that elapsesRATIO SCHEDULES deal with BEHAVIORS or a certain # OF CORRECT RESPONSES
27 Variable ratios schedule is when an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained. Ex. slot machines.
28 Fixed ratio schedule a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained. Ex. Buy 10 haircuts get 1 free.
29 Variable interval schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time. Ex. Fishing and catching a fish after varying amounts of time
30 Fixed interval schedule is when the reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed. Ex. You get allowance every other Friday.Intervals are dealing with time.
31 Shaping is the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer versions of it. (teach animals tricks)(learn a new skill)
32 Social LearningThe process of altering behavior by observing and imitating others. Includes cognitive learning & ModelingCognitive Learning – involves mental process and may involve observation and imitationCognitive Map – mental picture of a place
33 Modeling – learning by imitating/copying Bobo-Doll ExperimentBandura demonstrated that children learn aggressive behaviors by watching an adult’s aggressive behaviors.
34 TOKEN ECONOMYDesirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards