2Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioral change or potential behavioral change. In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environmentFOUR TYPES OF LEARNING1234
3Conditioning- is making an association between two events by repeatedly having them occur close together in time.Conditioning occurs everydayEX. If we eat something and become nauseous, smelling that food later may make us queasy. It can be reversed.EX. Students are conditioned by the school bell: their hearts race; they jump out of their seatsWe can condition both mental and physical behaviorConditioning plays a role in hunger. If the school day were shortened to 20 minute periods, you would still eat during the same lunch period (although a different time). You have been conditioned by the periods.
4Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.Can a bell make you salivate? Classical Conditioning can make it happen.Pavlov was actually studying digestion in dogs when he stumbled across this phenomenonClassical conditioning is called so because it was the first experiment with learningWhen we touch a hot stove, our reflex pulls our hand back. It does this instinctually, no learning involved. It is merely a survival instinct. But why now do some people, after getting burned, pull their hands back even when the stove is not turned on?Classical conditioning works with Involuntary responses (we have no control over the behavior)When do you leave the classroom? When the bell rings, right? You have been classically conditioned.
5Stimulus is anything that will cause some kind of reaction. (meat) Response - is the reaction to the stimulus. (salivating)
6There are no special conditions needed for the meat to cause salivation, it is a natural and automatic response. Therefore the meat is an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation is an unconditioned responseUnconditioned stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that automatically elicits a response. (meat)Unconditioned response (UCR)- an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus. (saliva)Fear would be an unconditioned response. We don’t have to learn to be afraid.
7When the dog begins to associate the sight of the experimenter or the sound of a bell with food, then the experimenter or bell has become a conditioned stimulusConditioned stimulus (CS)- is a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (unconditioned) stimulus (bell)Does your cat come running when it hears the can opener. The can opener has become a conditioned stimulus.
8When the dog begins to salivate at the sight of the experimenter or the sound of the bell, then the salivating has become a conditioned responseConditioned response (CR) -is a response to a stimulus that has been brought about by learning
13Stimulus generalization occurs when a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original (responding to any bell sound, no matter what pitch)If stimulus generalization had occurred with someone who had learned to be afraid of the ocean, what other things could cause a fear response in that person? (a lake, river, bathtub, pool)
14Discrimination is the ability to respond differently to distinct stimuli. (only responding to one type of bell)
15Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possibleWatson showed that fear can be learned through classical conditioning (ex. Sound of a gun shot can cause fear in war vets)Albert was shown a white rat and several other animals. At first Albert was not afraid. Then, the experimenter began making a loud noise behind Albert every time he saw the white rat. Eventually Albert feared the rat without the loud noise. Soon Albert feared all the animals = stimulus generalization.
16Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time. The conditioned response (CR) will gradually die outEx. Pavlov’s dogs-food was taken away and the dogs eventually stopped salivating at the sight of experimenter or sound of the bellIf you wanted to extinguish the fear of a dog who has been beaten by hand, you might raise your hand every time you pet the dog so that it no longer fears a raised hand.
17Classical Conditioning Water Gun Experiment`Classical Conditioning
18Label a blank sheet of paper with the following and identify each as you watch the water gun experimentUCSUCRCSCRSTIMULUS GENERALIZATION?EXTINCTION?
19water squirted at volunteer UCSwater squirted at volunteerUCRflinch, squint, facial expressionCSsound of the word canCRflinch, squint, facial expression when word “can” is read without water squirtIf words that sound like can cause CR (flinch, squint, facial expression)SG?Conditioning can occur after one pairing of the neutral and unconditioned stimulus, or it may take several tries.EXTINCTION?When the CR’s disappear or become less pronounced when the word “can” is uttered several times without squirt of water
20CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND ADVERTISING Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).
22Neutral: beverage product Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place.Neutral: beverage productUCS: barely clothed modelsUCR: pleasant feelingsCS: the productHave students meet in groups quickly and generate a list of 5 – 10 things that they have learned through classical conditioning in their lives. If time permits, have them identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR.CR: pleasant feelings
24Identify the UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus), UCR (Unconditioned Response), CS (Conditioned Stimulus), CR (Conditioned Response) for each of the following:
25You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.UCS:Flu SicknessUCR:NauseaNew foodCS:CR:Nausea to new food
26An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.UCS:DrugUCR:Accelerated Heart RateSmall roomCS:CR:Accelerated heart rate to small room
27John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat.UCS:Loud noiseUCR:startleWhite ratCS:CR:Startle response to white rat
28OPERANT CONDITIONINGMost learning occurs as a result of some voluntary action taken by the learner. This is called operant conditioning.Operant conditioning is conditioning (learning) that results from one’s actions and the consequences that they causeImagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actionsOperant Conditioning involves learned voluntary responses (ones we control)
29B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory. Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the years
30Two types of Reinforcement Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that responseTwo types of ReinforcementPrimary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or waterThe possibility of getting one of these when you perform an action is the strongest incentive to learnWhen a contractor reinforces something, he is strengthening it.
31Secondary reinforcement is anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer. Ex: money brings us food by buying itThese reinforcements can also be either positive or negativePositive reinforcement is when there is a tendency to repeat a response because it was followed by the addition of something pleasant. Something that is wanted by the individual is given after the action
32Reinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it. Negative reinforcement is when something that is unpleasant is stopped or taken away when something is doneReinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it.In both cases the consequences of an action are something that the organism wants. In one, something pleasant is added and in the other something unpleasant is removedReinforcement always makes a response strongerNagging is a form of Negative reinforcement. Let’s say you don’t take the garbage out. Your parents nag you about it all the time. Eventually you take that garbage out so the nagging stops.
33Continuous reinforcement occurs when after each time a behavior occurs it is reinforced. The problem with this is that if the creature gets used to being rewarded and then is not, it will quit doing the behaviorTo avoid the problem with continuous reinforcement, there can be different schedules of reinforcement (different methods of reinforcing) used.Partial reinforcement schedule is when a reward is not given each time an act is performed. There are 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules.
34Variable ratios schedule is when reinforcement occurs after a desired behavior occurs, but a different number of the desired acts are required each time. Ex. slot machines.
35Fixed ratio schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after the desired act is performed a specific number of times. Ex. Get allowance every two times you clean your room.Ratios are dealing with a certain # of behaviorsThere can be problems with this. You may do a poor job cleaning your room the first time, and rush to clean it the second time because you know your reinforcement only comes after two times.
36Variable interval schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time if a desired act occurs. Ex. fishing
37Fixed interval schedule is when the reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed and the desired act occurs. Ex. You get allowance every other Friday.Intervals are dealing with time.
39There also is a difference between punishment and negative reinforcement Punishment is the process of trying to weaken a response by following it with unpleasant consequences, not to try and strengthen it.There are two basic ways to go with punishment
40Something desired can be taken away. Ex Something desired can be taken away. Ex. money paid for a traffic ticket . (THIS IS ALSO CALLED RESPONSE COST)Something unwanted can be added. Ex. retaking drivers test for violationsDiscriminations, extinction and generalization will occur in operant conditioning just as they occurred in classical conditioning.Ask: What is the best form of Punishment for teens? Or would reinforcement be more effective? You break curfew, what works better, grounding or removing specific privileges.
42Rules in analyzing examples Rules in analyzing examples. The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred.What behavior in the example was increased or decreased?b. Was the behavior increased (if yes, the process has to be either positive or negative reinforcement), or decreased (if the behavior was decreased the process is either response cost or punishment).c. What was the consequence / stimulus that followed the behavior in the example?d. Was the consequence / stimulus added or removed? If added, the process was either positive reinforcement or punishment. If it was subtracted, the process was either negative reinforcement or response cost.
43Billy likes to campout in the backyard Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks.What behavior was changed?CAMPING OUTWas the behavior strengthened or weakened?WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
44What was the consequence? HAVING WATER THROWN ON HIMWas the consequence added or subtracted?ADDEDSince a consequence was added and the behavior was weakened, the process was punishment.
45What behavior was changed? Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class.What behavior was changed?HANDRAISINGWas the behavior strengthened or weakened?STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
46What was the consequence? BEING CALLED ONWas the consequence added or subtracted?ADDEDSince the consequence was added and the behavior was strengthened, the process is positive reinforcement.
47What behavior was changed? Gregory is being reinforced using a token economy. When he follows a direction / command he earns a point. At the end of each day, he can "buy" freetime, t.v. privileges, etc. with his points. When he misbehaves or doesn't follow a command, he loses points. Andrew used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero.What behavior was changed?NAME CALLINGWas the behavior strengthened or weakened?WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
48What was the consequence? LOSING POINTSWas the consequence added or subtracted?SUBTRACTEDSince the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was weakened, the process is response cost.
49What behavior was changed? John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup. Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurts, then goes to the dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes every 6-monthsWhat behavior was changed?GOING TO THE DENTISTWas the behavior strengthened or weakened?STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
50What was the consequence? TOOTH NO LONGER HURTINGWas the consequence added or subtracted?SUBTRACTEDSince the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was strengthened, the process is negative reinforcement.
51Two techniques can be used to learn complex responses, they will only be used in operant conditioningShaping is the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer versions of it. Ex. of dog jumping through hoop. First approach hoop, rewarded, jump hoop, rewarded etc.Demonstration: Pick a volunteer. Have that person leave the room for a moment. Have the rest of the class choose a simple behavior it wants to shape. Have the student return. Every time the student gets close to the desired behavior, have the students clap. (VERY SIMILAR TO HOT AND COLD)
52Chaining is the reinforcing the connection between the different parts of a sequence. Ex. learning how to play basketball you learn how to dribble, then pass and catch etc. Ex. To divide numbers you must learn to multiply, and subtract etc.Each shaped behavior is reinforcedSeparate behaviors are joined togetherEach shaped behavior is connected to anotherChaining is taking a bunch of shaped behaviors and putting them together.
53Operant Conditioning: Stimulus – Response - Reinforcement IN REVIEWIn classical conditioning the critical part of the conditioning occurs before the response; the stimulus actually causes the response. In operant conditioning, the critical part of conditioning occurs after the response; the reinforcement determines whether the response will occur again.Operant = Stimulus, Response, ReinforcementOperant Conditioning: Stimulus – Response - Reinforcement
54In classical conditioning learning takes place automatically, without any voluntary action on the part of the subject. In operant conditioning the subject learns from the consequences of his or her voluntary actions.CLASSICAL = INVOLUNTARYOPERANT = VOLUNTARYSome behaviors are learned through classical conditioning while others are learned through operant conditioning and some behaviors are learned through a combinations of both.
55Present day psychology has moved away from classical and operant conditioning. While both play a role in learning, they fall short of explaining complex learning processes.Current belief is that Operant and Classical conditioning treat humans too much like robots.
56Social Learning is all learning that occurs in a social situation. This was theorized by Albert Bandura, who believed that the most important aspect of learning was the complex “inner person” who can analyze events and make decisions before a response is given.Prior to beginning these notes, leave the class for a moment. Have one student prepared to grab the basketball from behind the desk and start shooting at the basket. Return after a few moments and ask the class what happened. How many people began to shoot also? This is observational learning.This occurs between the stimulus and the responseSTIMULUSANALYZERESPOND
57Observational learning is the learning patterns of behavior by watching others and imitating the behavior of others.From the parent a child learns speech matters, habits and how to react to other people. The child will observe and then pattern behavior after that of the important people in their life.Much of our learning is done through observationObservational learning is a part of social learning
58‘Social learning’ refers to all learning in a social situation, ‘observational learning’ is one of the processes used for social learning where we watch events, persons, and situations for cues on how to behave.Bobo Doll Experiment:Children watched as an adult violently treated a doll (pummeled with hammer, punched in face, kicked, threw)Children were put in a room and not allowed to play with toys, then they were moved to the room with the doll88% of the children attacked the doll in a similar fashion as the adults. 8 months later, 40% of the children still attacked the doll.To show how essential observational learning is, have a student recite specific instructions to you on how to tie a shoe. The student cannot show you, only tell you.
59COGNITIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING Cognitive approach is a way of learning that is based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledgeWith this approach we are able to learn very abstract and subtle things that could not have been learned through conditioning or social learning. Ex. broken mirror, walking under ladder.This is the most advanced type of learningIt is more complex than stimulus and response. Think about Little Albert, what would have been different if he were older and able to tell that Watson was standing behind him banging on a bar. Would he have still associated fear of the noise with the white rat?Cognition is studied by focusing on how complex knowledge is obtained, processed, and organized
60E.C. Tolman is a psychologist who felt that the stimulus-response view of learning was far to simplified. Animals use what is called a cognitive map to aid in learning.Cognitive Map is a mental image of where one is located in space. Animals and people are able to view the differences in things mentally and to remember the changes.Cognitive Map Experiment:Give students all a blank sheet of paperHave students draw their house in the middle of the paperHave students think of two places that are relatively the same distance from their house. One has to be a place they enjoy going and one has to be a place they do not enjoy going.Have students draw a map of the streets from their house to each placeHave students evaluate their drawing, how many made the distance to the unpleasant place greater than the distance to the pleasant place. If they did, they made a symbolic map that puts them closer to the pleasant place.Ex. Rats in a maze form a cognitive map. If they find the exit, they can be put back in that map and recall the cognitive map to escape