Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING. FOUR TYPES OF LEARNING Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioral change or potential behavioral."— Presentation transcript:
FOUR TYPES OF LEARNING Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioral change or potential behavioral change. In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment 1234
Conditioning- is making an association between two events by repeatedly having them occur close together in time.
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus. Can a bell make you salivate? Classical Conditioning can make it happen. When do you leave the classroom? When the bell rings, right? You have been classically conditioned.
Stimulus is anything that will cause some kind of reaction. (meat) Response - is the reaction to the stimulus. (salivating)
There are no special conditions needed for the meat to cause salivation, it is a natural and automatic response. Therefore the meat is an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation is an unconditioned response Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that automatically elicits a response. (meat) Unconditioned response (UCR)- an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus. (saliva)
When the dog begins to associate the sight of the experimenter or the sound of a bell with food, then the experimenter or bell has become a conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS)- is a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (unconditioned) stimulus (bell)
When the dog begins to salivate at the sight of the experimenter or the sound of the bell, then the salivating has become a conditioned response Conditioned response (CR) -is a response to a stimulus that has been brought about by learning
Stimulus generalization occurs when a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original (responding to any bell sound, no matter what pitch)
Discrimination is the ability to respond differently to distinct stimuli. (only responding to one type of bell)
Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possible
Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time. The conditioned response (CR) will gradually die out Ex. Pavlov’s dogs-food was taken away and the dogs eventually stopped salivating at the sight of experimenter or sound of the bell
Water Gun Experiment Classical Conditioning `
UCS UCR CS CR STIMULUS GENERALIZATION? EXTINCTION? Label a blank sheet of paper with the following and identify each as you watch the water gun experiment
UCS UCR water squirted at volunteer flinch, squint, facial expression CSsound of the word can CRflinch, squint, facial expression when word “can” is read without water squirt SG? If words that sound like can cause CR (flinch, squint, facial expression) EXTINCTION?When the CR’s disappear or become less pronounced when the word “can” is uttered several times without squirt of water
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND ADVERTISING Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).
Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place. Neutral: beverage product UCS: barely clothed models UCR: pleasant feelings CS: the product CR: pleasant feelings
Identify the UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus), UCR (Unconditioned Response), CS (Conditioned Stimulus), CR (Conditioned Response) for each of the following:
You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. UCS: UCR: CS: CR: Flu Sickness Nausea New food Nausea to new food
An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate. UCS: UCR: CS: CR: Drug Accelerated Heart Rate Small room Accelerated heart rate to small room
John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat. UCS: UCR: CS: CR: Loud noise startle White rat Startle response to white rat
OPERANT CONDITIONING Most learning occurs as a result of some voluntary action taken by the learner. This is called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is conditioning (learning) that results from one’s actions and the consequences that they cause
B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory. Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the years
Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response Two types of Reinforcement Primary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or water The possibility of getting one of these when you perform an action is the strongest incentive to learn
Secondary reinforcement is anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer. Ex: money brings us food by buying it These reinforcements can also be either positive or negative Positive reinforcement is when there is a tendency to repeat a response because it was followed by the addition of something pleasant. Something that is wanted by the individual is given after the action
Negative reinforcement is when something that is unpleasant is stopped or taken away when something is done Reinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it.
Continuous reinforcement occurs when after each time a behavior occurs it is reinforced. The problem with this is that if the creature gets used to being rewarded and then is not, it will quit doing the behavior To avoid the problem with continuous reinforcement, there can be different schedules of reinforcement (different methods of reinforcing) used. Partial reinforcement schedule is when a reward is not given each time an act is performed. There are 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules.
Variable ratios schedule is when reinforcement occurs after a desired behavior occurs, but a different number of the desired acts are required each time. Ex. slot machines.
Fixed ratio schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after the desired act is performed a specific number of times. Ex. Get allowance every two times you clean your room.
Variable interval schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time if a desired act occurs. Ex. fishing
Fixed interval schedule is when the reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed and the desired act occurs. Ex. You get allowance every other Friday.
There also is a difference between punishment and negative reinforcement Punishment is the process of trying to weaken a response by following it with unpleasant consequences, not to try and strengthen it. There are two basic ways to go with punishment
Something desired can be taken away. Ex. money paid for a traffic ticket. (THIS IS ALSO CALLED RESPONSE COST) Something unwanted can be added. Ex. retaking drivers test for violations Discriminations, extinction and generalization will occur in operant conditioning just as they occurred in classical conditioning.
Rules in analyzing examples. The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred. a.What behavior in the example was increased or decreased? b. Was the behavior increased (if yes, the process has to be either positive or negative reinforcement), or decreased (if the behavior was decreased the process is either response cost or punishment). c. What was the consequence / stimulus that followed the behavior in the example? d. Was the consequence / stimulus added or removed? If added, the process was either positive reinforcement or punishment. If it was subtracted, the process was either negative reinforcement or response cost.
Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. What behavior was changed? Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? CAMPING OUT WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
What was the consequence? Was the consequence added or subtracted? Since a consequence was added and the behavior was weakened, the process was punishment. HAVING WATER THROWN ON HIM ADDED
Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class. What behavior was changed? Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? HANDRAISING STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
What was the consequence? Was the consequence added or subtracted? Since the consequence was added and the behavior was strengthened, the process is positive reinforcement. BEING CALLED ON ADDED
Gregory is being reinforced using a token economy. When he follows a direction / command he earns a point. At the end of each day, he can "buy" freetime, t.v. privileges, etc. with his points. When he misbehaves or doesn't follow a command, he loses points. Andrew used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero. What behavior was changed? Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? NAME CALLING WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
What was the consequence? Was the consequence added or subtracted? Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was weakened, the process is response cost. LOSING POINTS SUBTRACTED
John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup. Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurts, then goes to the dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes every 6-months What behavior was changed? Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? GOING TO THE DENTIST STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)
What was the consequence? Was the consequence added or subtracted? Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was strengthened, the process is negative reinforcement. TOOTH NO LONGER HURTING SUBTRACTED
Two techniques can be used to learn complex responses, they will only be used in operant conditioning Shaping is the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer versions of it. Ex. of dog jumping through hoop. First approach hoop, rewarded, jump hoop, rewarded etc.
Chaining is the reinforcing the connection between the different parts of a sequence. Ex. learning how to play basketball you learn how to dribble, then pass and catch etc. Ex. To divide numbers you must learn to multiply, and subtract etc.
IN REVIEW In classical conditioning the critical part of the conditioning occurs before the response; the stimulus actually causes the response. In operant conditioning, the critical part of conditioning occurs after the response; the reinforcement determines whether the response will occur again. Operant Conditioning: Stimulus – Response - Reinforcement
In classical conditioning learning takes place automatically, without any voluntary action on the part of the subject. In operant conditioning the subject learns from the consequences of his or her voluntary actions. Some behaviors are learned through classical conditioning while others are learned through operant conditioning and some behaviors are learned through a combinations of both. CLASSICAL = INVOLUNTARYOPERANT = VOLUNTARY
Present day psychology has moved away from classical and operant conditioning. While both play a role in learning, they fall short of explaining complex learning processes.
Social Learning Social Learning is all learning that occurs in a social situation. This was theorized by Albert Bandura, who believed that the most important aspect of learning was the complex “inner person” who can analyze events and make decisions before a response is given. This occurs between the stimulus and the response STIMULUSANALYZERESPOND
Observational learning is the learning patterns of behavior by watching others and imitating the behavior of others. From the parent a child learns speech matters, habits and how to react to other people. The child will observe and then pattern behavior after that of the important people in their life.
‘Social learning’ refers to all learning in a social situation, ‘observational learning’ is one of the processes used for social learning where we watch events, persons, and situations for cues on how to behave.
COGNITIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING Cognitive approach is a way of learning that is based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge With this approach we are able to learn very abstract and subtle things that could not have been learned through conditioning or social learning. Ex. broken mirror, walking under ladder. Cognition is studied by focusing on how complex knowledge is obtained, processed, and organized
E.C. Tolman is a psychologist who felt that the stimulus-response view of learning was far to simplified. Animals use what is called a cognitive map to aid in learning. Cognitive Map is a mental image of where one is located in space. Animals and people are able to view the differences in things mentally and to remember the changes. Ex. Rats in a maze form a cognitive map. If they find the exit, they can be put back in that map and recall the cognitive map to escape