Introduction Three sentences 2: Two background sentences 1: “This essay will discuss…”
Introduction: Background Two sentences Describe the current situationor Describe the past and presentor Give one side and the other side
Introduction: Background Ex.1 Describe the current situation Abu Dhabi is a modern city, but it faces a modern problem. Every morning and evening, the streets are crowded with cars, taxis and trucks.
Introduction: Background Ex.2 Describe the past and present Thirty years ago there were only a handful of cars in the dusty town of Abu Dhabi. Today, the streets are bumper-to-bumper with modern 4WD vehicles, luxury saloons, and taxis.
Introduction: Background Ex.3 Give one side and the other side Abu Dhabi is one of the most highly developed cities in the Arab world. However, traffic congestion is a serious problem.
Introduction: Thesis Thesis: Say what the essay will do This essay will examine the causes of traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi and look at some of the effects. discuss, analyze, examine, describe, outline, look at, mention, illustrate, review, explore, investigate…
Sample Introduction Abu Dhabi is a modern city, but it also has a modern problem. Every morning and evening, the streets are crowded with cars, taxis and trucks. This essay will examine the causes of traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi and look at some of the effects.
Causes Seven sentences (approx.) Opening sentence (Topic) Cause 1, more information Cause 2, more information Cause 3, more information
Causes: Topic Sentences Several factors have contributed to Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems. Abu Dhabi’s gridlock is the result of several factors. There are several reasons for Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems. Specify! Don’t use pronouns like This or It in the opening.
Causes No trains, trams, buses, metro, etc (poor public transport infrastructure) Too many taxis Everybody can afford a car due to rapid economic growth Road building cannot keep up Rapid population growth Limited space on the island High temperatures Children cannot walk to school No staggered hours
Causes: Sample 1 One of the main causes of congestion is the high number of cars. Because of the emirate’s rapid economic growth, most residents can afford private vehicles.
Causes: Sample 2 Another contributing factor is the lack of a public transport infrastructure. The absence of buses, trains, or an underground forces residents to rely on cars or taxis.
Causes: Sample 3 The road system is another cause of congestion. Although the roads are highly developed, planners have not been able to keep up with the rapid expansion of the population. Frequent road works also lead to delays.
Effects Seven sentences (approx.) Opening sentence (Topic) Effect 1, more information Effect 2, more information Effect 3, more information
Effects Higher levels of anger and frustration More air pollution due to emissions Increased noise pollution More wasted time, delays at work and at school or when doing errands Reduced productivity Less pleasant environment Higher motoring costs (wasted fuel)
Effects: Topic Sentences This congestion has several adverse effects. Abu Dhabi’s traffic affects the city in various ways. Traffic jams have many negative consequences for the city. Specify! Don’t use pronouns like This or It in the opening.
Effects: Sample 1 The biggest effect is increased anger and frustration. Commuters and shoppers experience delays, resulting in tension and stress as they sit in traffic. This can even lead to increased accident rates.
Effects: Sample 2 Another adverse effect is on the environment. Air quality declines as vehicle emissions rise. Noise levels also increase. In general, the city becomes a less pleasant place to live or work.
Effects: Sample 3 A major effect is on productivity and efficiency. Workers and students are late for work or school. Salesmen and travelers waste hours in traffic jams, leading to lost profits.
Conclusion Two or three sentences Summarize the main ideasand/or Give your opinion Look to the Future
Conclusion: Sample 1 Overall, Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems are caused by an over- reliance on private transport and a failure to keep up with the rapidly expanding population. However, the city has shown it can solve problems in the past, and I am confident that it can reduce traffic congestion in the future.
Conclusion: Sample 2 Overall, too many cars for too few road have lead to severe congestion in the city. However, if the municipal authorities encourage residents to use public transport, I am sure Abu Dhabi will continue to be a pleasant city to live in in the future.