2 Introduction Three sentences 2: Two background sentences 1: “This essay will discuss…”
3 Introduction: Background Two sentencesDescribe the current situation orDescribe the past and present orGive one side and the other side
4 Introduction: Background Ex.1 Describe the current situationAbu Dhabi is a modern city, but it faces a modern problem. Every morning and evening, the streets are crowded with cars, taxis and trucks.
5 Introduction: Background Ex.2 Describe the past and presentThirty years ago there were only a handful of cars in the dusty town of Abu Dhabi. Today, the streets are bumper-to-bumper with modern 4WD vehicles, luxury saloons, and taxis.
6 Introduction: Background Ex.3 Give one side and the other sideAbu Dhabi is one of the most highly developed cities in the Arab world. However, traffic congestion is a serious problem.
7 Introduction: Thesis Thesis: Say what the essay will do This essay will examine the causes of traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi and look at some of the effects.discuss, analyze, examine, describe, outline, look at, mention, illustrate, review, explore, investigate…
8 Sample IntroductionAbu Dhabi is a modern city, but it also has a modern problem. Every morning and evening, the streets are crowded with cars, taxis and trucks. This essay will examine the causes of traffic congestion in Abu Dhabi and look at some of the effects.
9 Causes Seven sentences (approx.) Opening sentence (Topic) Cause 1, more informationCause 2, more informationCause 3, more information
10 Causes: Topic Sentences Several factors have contributed to Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems.Abu Dhabi’s gridlock is the result of several factors.There are several reasons for Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems.Specify! Don’t use pronouns like This or It in the opening.
11 CausesNo trains, trams, buses, metro, etc (poor public transport infrastructure)Too many taxisEverybody can afford a car due to rapid economic growthRoad building cannot keep upRapid population growthLimited space on the islandHigh temperaturesChildren cannot walk to schoolNo staggered hours
12 Causes: Sample 1One of the main causes of congestion is the high number of cars. Because of the emirate’s rapid economic growth, most residents can afford private vehicles.
13 Causes: Sample 2Another contributing factor is the lack of a public transport infrastructure. The absence of buses, trains, or an underground forces residents to rely on cars or taxis.
14 Causes: Sample 3The road system is another cause of congestion. Although the roads are highly developed, planners have not been able to keep up with the rapid expansion of the population. Frequent road works also lead to delays.
15 Effects Seven sentences (approx.) Opening sentence (Topic) Effect 1, more informationEffect 2, more informationEffect 3, more information
16 Effects Higher levels of anger and frustration More air pollution due to emissionsIncreased noise pollutionMore wasted time, delays at work and at school or when doing errandsReduced productivityLess pleasant environmentHigher motoring costs (wasted fuel)
17 Effects: Topic Sentences This congestion has several adverse effects.Abu Dhabi’s traffic affects the city in various ways.Traffic jams have many negative consequences for the city.Specify! Don’t use pronouns like This or It in the opening.
18 Effects: Sample 1The biggest effect is increased anger and frustration. Commuters and shoppers experience delays, resulting in tension and stress as they sit in traffic. This can even lead to increased accident rates.
19 Effects: Sample 2Another adverse effect is on the environment. Air quality declines as vehicle emissions rise. Noise levels also increase. In general, the city becomes a less pleasant place to live or work.
20 Effects: Sample 3A major effect is on productivity and efficiency. Workers and students are late for work or school. Salesmen and travelers waste hours in traffic jams, leading to lost profits.
21 Conclusion Two or three sentences Look to the Future Summarize the main ideas and/orGive your opinionLook to the Future
22 Conclusion: Sample 1Overall, Abu Dhabi’s traffic problems are caused by an over-reliance on private transport and a failure to keep up with the rapidly expanding population. However, the city has shown it can solve problems in the past, and I am confident that it can reduce traffic congestion in the future.
23 Conclusion: Sample 2Overall, too many cars for too few road have lead to severe congestion in the city. However, if the municipal authorities encourage residents to use public transport, I am sure Abu Dhabi will continue to be a pleasant city to live in in the future.