Presentation on theme: "A leading environmental expert has said that, The invention of the internal combustion engine is the biggest environmental disaster to affect the Earth."— Presentation transcript:
A leading environmental expert has said that, The invention of the internal combustion engine is the biggest environmental disaster to affect the Earth. In what ways are motor vehicles a threat to the environment?
Refer to p.5 Air pollution Noise pollution Water pollution Land pollution Energy crises Global warming
Summarize the pollutants from motor vehicles and their associated health risks. Carbon monoxide Oxygen shortage Nitrous oxides Affect CNS, oxygen shortage Lead Affect mental development in children Hydrocarbons Carcinogenic Smog Eye irritation, impair respiratory system
Which fuel, petrol or diesel, you think causes more pollution problems? Why? Diesel 75% of NO, 45% RSPs, many particulates (tiny pieces of carbon) which cause bronchitis, asthma and cardiovascular problems and PAHs (polyaromatic) which is carcinogenic. Petrol using engines emit more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon than the diesel using engines. Refer to p. 7, 8 for diesel and p. 6 for petrol
While diesel engines represent only 38% of the licensed vehicles on Hong Kong’s road, they travel 65% of the vehicle kilometres and emit 82% of the nitrous oxides and 98% of the vehicle created RSPs.
What is the projected increase in the total number of vehicles? Refer to p.2 The total number of vehicles is projected to increase by 130% between 1986 and 2001, from 261000 to 610000. The most significant increase would be in the number of private cars and goods vehicles.
The number of private cars and motorcycles is projected to increase by 152%, from 144000 in 1986 to 363000 in 2001. The number of goods vehicles is estimated to increase by 140%, from 84000 in 1986 to 202000 in 2001 if there is not any further measures to restrict ownership or usage. What type(s) of vehicles will increase most in number?
Can you suggest some reasons for that? Fast economic growth Distribution of population (new towns) and places of employment (H. K. Island) – increase the number of long trips Increase transport with the mainland China (person trips increase 40% and daily goods vehicles trips increase 139%). Shifting of infrastructure and transport development to the western side which increase trip length. Dispersal of population Increase transport demand and car ownership
Consequences: Increase vehicle number, travel demand, trip length and growth in congestion Increase pollution. Mobility of people and goods impeded downgrade the quality of life strains in the economy.
Make a list of possible ways to curb pollution contributed by motor vehicles. Arrange them in descending order of effectiveness. Possibility to cut down the emission: Shifting to use petrol instead of diesel (refer to p.7 for the obstacles). Any way to cut down the difference between petrol and diesel? Introduce the use of unleaded petrol (Refer to p. 6 and p.14). Using catalytic converters (refer to p.8).
Introduce the Electronic Road Pricing Scheme to prevent the poor use of road (refer to p. 4 and p. 9) Improve the public transport on p. 10 and p. 15. Build more roads Vs geographical limit on p. 11 Increase the first registration tax and driving licence fees on p. 9 Punitive tariffs for illegal parking on p. 11
What are the short-term and long-term impacts to Hong Kong if the above measures have taken to curb pollution contributed by motor vehicles? Short-term – Negative: Increase costs in anti-pollution measures. Reduce the competitiveness. More government expenses in monitoring and control. Increase costs in maintenance.
Long-term – Positive: Improve health – increase working efficiency. Better environment – favour economic growth. Higher living standard and quality of life. More environmentally concerned industries favoured by western countries.