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Managing Stress Restoring Mind-Body Harmony. Defining Stress  The word “stress” is often used to represent both the causes and results of disruptive.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Stress Restoring Mind-Body Harmony. Defining Stress  The word “stress” is often used to represent both the causes and results of disruptive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Stress Restoring Mind-Body Harmony

2 Defining Stress  The word “stress” is often used to represent both the causes and results of disruptive life experiences.  Stress - The sum of physical and emotional reactions to any stimulus that disturbs the harmony of body and mind.  The word “stress” is often used to represent both the causes and results of disruptive life experiences.  Stress - The sum of physical and emotional reactions to any stimulus that disturbs the harmony of body and mind.

3 Defining Stress Cont.  The word “stressor” refers to the cause of the disruption of mind-body harmony.  Physical Situation  Psychological Situation  Examples of good stressors: Getting married, job interview, starting college, buying a large ticket item, etc…  Examples of negative stressors: Losing a job, death of a loved one, weather, illness, etc…  The word “stress” refers to symptoms resulting from stressors.  The word “stressor” refers to the cause of the disruption of mind-body harmony.  Physical Situation  Psychological Situation  Examples of good stressors: Getting married, job interview, starting college, buying a large ticket item, etc…  Examples of negative stressors: Losing a job, death of a loved one, weather, illness, etc…  The word “stress” refers to symptoms resulting from stressors.

4 In other words…  Stress comes from thinking “This situation puts my well-being at stake and I’m not sure I have the personal, social, economic, or physical resources to meet this challenge and come out OK.”

5 Warning Signs of Stress  Trouble falling asleep  Difficulty staying asleep  Waking up tired and not well rested  Changes in eating patterns  Craving sweet, fatty, salty (“comfort”) food  More headaches than usual  Short temper or irritability  Recurring colds and minor illness  Muscle ache and/or tightness  Trouble concentrating, remembering, or staying organized.  Trouble falling asleep  Difficulty staying asleep  Waking up tired and not well rested  Changes in eating patterns  Craving sweet, fatty, salty (“comfort”) food  More headaches than usual  Short temper or irritability  Recurring colds and minor illness  Muscle ache and/or tightness  Trouble concentrating, remembering, or staying organized.

6 Stress Degree  The degree to which a situation is stressful depends on an individual’s psychological makeup.  Everyone interprets the world and events differently. Thus, a situation that is stressful and upsetting to one person may not even bother another.  The degree to which a situation is stressful depends on an individual’s psychological makeup.  Everyone interprets the world and events differently. Thus, a situation that is stressful and upsetting to one person may not even bother another.

7 Stress Classification  Stressful situations can be classified into the following types:  A. Harm-and-loss situations: Stressful events that include death, loss of property, injury, and illness.  B. Threat situations: Events that cause stress because of a perception that harm or loss may occur.  Stressful situations can be classified into the following types:  A. Harm-and-loss situations: Stressful events that include death, loss of property, injury, and illness.  B. Threat situations: Events that cause stress because of a perception that harm or loss may occur.

8 Stress Classification Cont.  Challenge situations: Major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.  The stress that comes from challenging situations is called eustress as opposed to distress.  Challenge situations: Major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.  The stress that comes from challenging situations is called eustress as opposed to distress.

9 Stress Stress is anything that places a demand on us physically,mentally, or emotionally. It makes us change the normal way we live. Most of us think of stress as a crisis, but not all stress is bad.Without stress (astress), life would be boring. There would be no growth and no change.  With too much stress (distress), we reach overload. Our ability to cope becomes limited, and we feel burned out. However, some stress is good. It can provide an opportunity to bring about positive changes in our lives. We call this eustress. This type of stress leads to peak performance. Stress is anything that places a demand on us physically,mentally, or emotionally. It makes us change the normal way we live. Most of us think of stress as a crisis, but not all stress is bad.Without stress (astress), life would be boring. There would be no growth and no change.  With too much stress (distress), we reach overload. Our ability to cope becomes limited, and we feel burned out. However, some stress is good. It can provide an opportunity to bring about positive changes in our lives. We call this eustress. This type of stress leads to peak performance.

10 Stress  Eustress: Stress resulting from pleasant stressors.  Distress: Stress resulting from unpleasant stressors. (Accompanies harm, loss, and threat).  Eustress: Stress resulting from pleasant stressors.  Distress: Stress resulting from unpleasant stressors. (Accompanies harm, loss, and threat).

11 Factors Affecting the Experience of Stress  Predictability: Knowing when a stressful situation will occur produces less stress than not knowing.  Personal Control: Individuals who believe they can influence the course of their lives are likely to experience less stress than individuals who believe that their fate is determined by factors outside their control.  Predictability: Knowing when a stressful situation will occur produces less stress than not knowing.  Personal Control: Individuals who believe they can influence the course of their lives are likely to experience less stress than individuals who believe that their fate is determined by factors outside their control.

12 Factors Affecting the Experience of Stress Cont.  Belief in the outcome: People who believe that things are likely to improve (optimists) experience less stress than people who believe that things will get worse.  Social Support: Having someone to talk to and believing that the person can help manage a stressor by providing physical, emotional, or intellectual help lessons stress.  Belief in the outcome: People who believe that things are likely to improve (optimists) experience less stress than people who believe that things will get worse.  Social Support: Having someone to talk to and believing that the person can help manage a stressor by providing physical, emotional, or intellectual help lessons stress.

13 Fight-or-flight response  Purpose is to prepare an individual to deal with a stressor by confronting it or running away or avoiding it.

14 Bodies Response  Heart: HR increases and force of contractions  Blood: Elevated BP  Eye: Contraction of radial muscle of iris and relaxation of cilary muscle (Dilated pupils)  Intestines: Decreased motility and relaxation of sphincters.  Skin: Contraction of pilomotor muscles and contraction of sweat glands  Spleen: Contraction  Brain: Activation of reticular formation  Heart: HR increases and force of contractions  Blood: Elevated BP  Eye: Contraction of radial muscle of iris and relaxation of cilary muscle (Dilated pupils)  Intestines: Decreased motility and relaxation of sphincters.  Skin: Contraction of pilomotor muscles and contraction of sweat glands  Spleen: Contraction  Brain: Activation of reticular formation

15 Disorders Caused by Stress  Gastrointestinal Disorders:  Constipation  Diarrhea  Ulcer  Anorexia Nervosa  Obesity  Respiratory Disorders:  Asthma  Hay fever  Tuberculosis  Skin Disorders:  Eczema  Pruitus  Urticaria  Gastrointestinal Disorders:  Constipation  Diarrhea  Ulcer  Anorexia Nervosa  Obesity  Respiratory Disorders:  Asthma  Hay fever  Tuberculosis  Skin Disorders:  Eczema  Pruitus  Urticaria Musculoskeletal Disorders: Rheumatoid arthritis Low back pain Migraine headache Muscle tension Metabolic Disorders Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Diabetes Metabolic syndrome Cardiovascular Disorders Coronary artery disease Essential hypertension Congestive heart failure Menstrual irregularities Cancer Accident Proneness

16 Overwork Causes Death in Japan  The Japanese Labor Ministry officially recognizes karoshi as a cause of death. In 2001, the ministry reported 143 cases of karoshi, but the actual number of deaths from overwork is thought to be about 10,000. Families who have lost someone to karoshi can sue the employer who imposed the stressful workload. In 1994, the Shimbi Gakuen School paid $123,000 to a family of a 44 yr old teacher who suffered a brain hemorrhage brought on by overwork and died.

17 How Stress Contributes to Illness  Illness arises when stress-response mechanisms are continually activated, and organs wear down or become diseased.  Nervous system and endocrine system.  Anxiety, sadness, frustration, anger, etc. activate those systems which in turn produce changes in the immune system and in physiology.  Illness arises when stress-response mechanisms are continually activated, and organs wear down or become diseased.  Nervous system and endocrine system.  Anxiety, sadness, frustration, anger, etc. activate those systems which in turn produce changes in the immune system and in physiology.

18 Stress Associated with Common Life Changes Experienced by Students  Death of close family member  Death of close friend  Divorce between parents  Jail term  Major personal injury or illness  Failed important course  Change in health  Pregnancy  Serious argument with close friend  Trouble with parents  New girlfriend or boyfriend  Increased workload at school  Change in habits  Too many missed classes  Death of close family member  Death of close friend  Divorce between parents  Jail term  Major personal injury or illness  Failed important course  Change in health  Pregnancy  Serious argument with close friend  Trouble with parents  New girlfriend or boyfriend  Increased workload at school  Change in habits  Too many missed classes

19 Posttraumatic Stress  PTSD: Physical and mental illness resulting from severe trauma.  Examples: Combat in war, living through a natural disaster, rape, physical assault, life-threatening illness  About 4% of the U.S. population is estimated to have PTSD.  Diagnosis: Flashbacks, recurrent thoughts and dreams, outbursts of anger, easily startled, little interests in daily activities, feeling cut off from others, sense of having a limited future.  PTSD: Physical and mental illness resulting from severe trauma.  Examples: Combat in war, living through a natural disaster, rape, physical assault, life-threatening illness  About 4% of the U.S. population is estimated to have PTSD.  Diagnosis: Flashbacks, recurrent thoughts and dreams, outbursts of anger, easily startled, little interests in daily activities, feeling cut off from others, sense of having a limited future.

20 Cortisol  A major influence of stress on the immune system is mediated by the hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal glands.

21 Cortisol Cont.  Prolonged stress elevates cortisol levels in the bloodstream. Cortisol enters immune cells and impairs their ability to fight infections and destroy cancer cells.  Example: Stress prior to test taking show reduced levels of immune system cells thus making exam stress a risk factor for colds and flu.  Prolonged stress elevates cortisol levels in the bloodstream. Cortisol enters immune cells and impairs their ability to fight infections and destroy cancer cells.  Example: Stress prior to test taking show reduced levels of immune system cells thus making exam stress a risk factor for colds and flu.

22 Managing Stress  The best way to manage stress is to replace stressful ways of living with beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that promote peace, joy, and mind-body harmony.  Eliminate interaction with the stressor.  Seek support from those you trust.  Use a variety of strategies to cope with stress.  The best way to manage stress is to replace stressful ways of living with beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that promote peace, joy, and mind-body harmony.  Eliminate interaction with the stressor.  Seek support from those you trust.  Use a variety of strategies to cope with stress.

23 Managing Stress  Exercise Moderate exercise, at a pace where you can talk comfortably  Play – Participate in hobbies, sports, games, music, theater.  Social support - Build friendships, join a social or church group.  Mini-Vacations-Take short one to three minute breaks throughout the day to take a walk, stretch-in-place, take a few deep relaxing breathes, etc.  Keeping a Healthy Perspective  Read a humorous book, don ’ t make a negative comment without proposing a constructive alternative.  Diet Eat a balanced, nutritional meal to help keep you functioning at your best.  Assertiveness Learn to say “ No ”. Standing up for your own rights without violating the rights of others.  Skill Building Learn more about your job and how to do it better.  Relaxation,  Prayer, Meditation Practice these effective stress relievers.  Exercise Moderate exercise, at a pace where you can talk comfortably  Play – Participate in hobbies, sports, games, music, theater.  Social support - Build friendships, join a social or church group.  Mini-Vacations-Take short one to three minute breaks throughout the day to take a walk, stretch-in-place, take a few deep relaxing breathes, etc.  Keeping a Healthy Perspective  Read a humorous book, don ’ t make a negative comment without proposing a constructive alternative.  Diet Eat a balanced, nutritional meal to help keep you functioning at your best.  Assertiveness Learn to say “ No ”. Standing up for your own rights without violating the rights of others.  Skill Building Learn more about your job and how to do it better.  Relaxation,  Prayer, Meditation Practice these effective stress relievers.


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