2Defining StressThe word “stress” is often used to represent both the causes and results of disruptive life experiences.Stress - The sum of physical and emotional reactions to any stimulus that disturbs the harmony of body and mind.
3Defining Stress Cont.The word “stressor” refers to the cause of the disruption of mind-body harmony.Physical SituationPsychological SituationExamples of good stressors: Getting married, job interview, starting college, buying a large ticket item, etc…Examples of negative stressors: Losing a job, death of a loved one, weather, illness, etc…The word “stress” refers to symptoms resulting from stressors.
4In other words…Stress comes from thinking “This situation puts my well-being at stake and I’m not sure I have the personal, social, economic, or physical resources to meet this challenge and come out OK.”
5Warning Signs of Stress Trouble falling asleepDifficulty staying asleepWaking up tired and not well restedChanges in eating patternsCraving sweet, fatty, salty (“comfort”) foodMore headaches than usualShort temper or irritabilityRecurring colds and minor illnessMuscle ache and/or tightnessTrouble concentrating, remembering, or staying organized.
6Stress DegreeThe degree to which a situation is stressful depends on an individual’s psychological makeup.Everyone interprets the world and events differently. Thus, a situation that is stressful and upsetting to one person may not even bother another.
7Stress Classification Stressful situations can be classified into the following types:A. Harm-and-loss situations: Stressful events that include death, loss of property, injury, and illness.B. Threat situations: Events that cause stress because of a perception that harm or loss may occur.
8Stress Classification Cont. Challenge situations: Major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.The stress that comes from challenging situations is called eustress as opposed to distress.
9StressStress is anything that places a demand on us physically,mentally, or emotionally. Itmakes us change the normal way we live.Most of us think of stress as a crisis, but not all stress is bad.Without stress (astress), life would be boring. There would be no growth and no change.With too much stress (distress), we reach overload. Our ability to cope becomes limited, and we feel burned out. However, some stress is good. It can provide an opportunity to bring about positive changes in our lives. We call this eustress. This type of stress leads to peak performance.
10Stress Eustress: Stress resulting from pleasant stressors. Distress: Stress resulting from unpleasant stressors. (Accompanies harm, loss, and threat).
11Factors Affecting the Experience of Stress Predictability: Knowing when a stressful situation will occur produces less stress than not knowing.Personal Control: Individuals who believe they can influence the course of their lives are likely to experience less stress than individuals who believe that their fate is determined by factors outside their control.
12Factors Affecting the Experience of Stress Cont. Belief in the outcome: People who believe that things are likely to improve (optimists) experience less stress than people who believe that things will get worse.Social Support: Having someone to talk to and believing that the person can help manage a stressor by providing physical, emotional, or intellectual help lessons stress.
13Fight-or-flight response Purpose is to prepare an individual to deal with a stressor by confronting it or running away or avoiding it.
14Bodies Response Heart: HR increases and force of contractions Blood: Elevated BPEye: Contraction of radial muscle of iris and relaxation of cilary muscle (Dilated pupils)Intestines: Decreased motility and relaxation of sphincters.Skin: Contraction of pilomotor muscles and contraction of sweat glandsSpleen: ContractionBrain: Activation of reticular formationActivates the autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline (also called epinephrine) from the adrenal glands.HR: to provide more blood to the musclesSkin: To limit bleeding if woundedEye: Let in more light, thereby improving visionBrain: Increases the alert and aroused state. Also makes energy available
16Overwork Causes Death in Japan The Japanese Labor Ministry officially recognizes karoshi as a cause of death. In 2001, the ministry reported 143 cases of karoshi, but the actual number of deaths from overwork is thought to be about 10,000. Families who have lost someone to karoshi can sue the employer who imposed the stressful workload. In 1994, the Shimbi Gakuen School paid $123,000 to a family of a 44 yr old teacher who suffered a brain hemorrhage brought on by overwork and died.
17How Stress Contributes to Illness Illness arises when stress-response mechanisms are continually activated, and organs wear down or become diseased.Nervous system and endocrine system.Anxiety, sadness, frustration, anger, etc. activate those systems which in turn produce changes in the immune system and in physiology.
18Stress Associated with Common Life Changes Experienced by Students Death of close family memberDeath of close friendDivorce between parentsJail termMajor personal injury or illnessFailed important courseChange in healthPregnancySerious argument with close friendTrouble with parentsNew girlfriend or boyfriendIncreased workload at schoolChange in habitsToo many missed classes
19Posttraumatic StressPTSD: Physical and mental illness resulting from severe trauma.Examples: Combat in war, living through a natural disaster, rape, physical assault, life-threatening illnessAbout 4% of the U.S. population is estimated to have PTSD.Diagnosis: Flashbacks, recurrent thoughts and dreams, outbursts of anger, easily startled, little interests in daily activities, feeling cut off from others, sense of having a limited future.
20CortisolA major influence of stress on the immune system is mediated by the hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal glands.
21Cortisol Cont.Prolonged stress elevates cortisol levels in the bloodstream. Cortisol enters immune cells and impairs their ability to fight infections and destroy cancer cells.Example: Stress prior to test taking show reduced levels of immune system cells thus making exam stress a risk factor for colds and flu.
22Managing StressThe best way to manage stress is to replace stressful ways of living with beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that promote peace, joy, and mind-body harmony.Eliminate interaction with the stressor.Seek support from those you trust.Use a variety of strategies to cope with stress.
23Managing StressExercise Moderate exercise, at a pace where you can talk comfortablyPlay – Participate in hobbies, sports, games, music, theater.Social support - Build friendships, join a social or church group.Mini-Vacations-Take short one to three minute breaks throughout the day to take a walk, stretch-in-place, take a few deep relaxing breathes, etc.Keeping a Healthy PerspectiveRead a humorous book, don’t make a negative comment without proposing a constructive alternative.Diet Eat a balanced, nutritional meal to help keep you functioning at your best.Assertiveness Learn to say “No”. Standing up for your own rights without violating the rights of others.Skill Building Learn more about your job and how to do it better.Relaxation,Prayer, Meditation Practice these effective stress relievers.