2How Stress OccursStress occurs as a result of the interplay of environmental situations and life events and the mental, emotional, and physical reactions.Harm-and-loss situations: Stress occurs because an important need is not met.Threat situations: Perceived or interpreted as potentially causing harm or loss.Challenge situations: Major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.Positive challenges create eustress; negative challenges create distress.
3The Mental Component of Stress The appraisal of a situation as absolutely or potentially damaging to one’s physical or psychological well-being or a threat to one’s survivalBelieving that one’s personal resources are insufficient
4The Emotional Component of Stress Consists of unpleasant emotions that arise from one’s appraisal of a situation as harmful or threatening and one’s resources for protection as limited
6Factors Affecting the Experience of Stress PredictabilityControlBelief in outcomeSocial support
7The Fight-or-Flight Response The response activates coordinated discharge of sympathetic nervous system and portions of the parasympathetic nervous system and of hormones, especially epinephrine.Emotions arise in the limbic system, and subsequent physiological response is mediated by the hypothalamus.
8The Fight-or-Flight Response Fight-or-flight responses include:Elevated heart rateElevated blood pressureConstricted blood vesselsDilated pupilsAlert, aroused stateLiberation of glucose and fatty acids for quick energy
9Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Stressful thoughts activate secretion of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus.CRF stimulates release of ACTH from the pituitary.ACTH stimulates releases of cortisol from the adrenal glands.Cortisol helps provide energy for responding to stress.Extended cortisol release suppresses the immune system.
11How Stress Contributes to Illness Causes the mind to become worn downWeakens immunityMotivates unhealthy behaviors in an attempt to deal with stress
12Illness from Stress Emotions from stress change physiology: Impairment of heart and immune functionTrying to modify stressful emotions can foster unhealthy behaviors:Smoking, drinking alcohol, other drug useNot engaging in health-promoting activities:Regular exercise, proper nutrition, sufficient sleep
13General Adaptation Syndrome Prolonged stress produces a characteristic response called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).Activation of GAS can lead to profound changes in vital body organs.Animals receiving mild electric shocks develop ulcers.Air traffic controllers have high incidence of ulcers and other gastrointestinal illness.
14General Adaptation Syndrome Three phases:Stage of alarm: A person’s ability to withstand or resist a stressor is lowered by the need to deal with the stressor, no matter what the stressor is.
15General Adaptation Syndrome Stage of resistance: The body adapts to the continued presence of the stressor by producing more epinephrine, increasing alertness and blood pressure, and suppressing the immune system; if prolonged, the ability to resist is depleted.Stage of exhaustion: When the ability to resist is depleted, the person becomes ill; this can take months or years.
17Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious, long-lasting psychological condition produced by stress.PTSD results from stress caused by involvement in war, living through a natural disaster, rape, physical assault, life-threatening illness, or any other traumatic experience.
18Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Diagnosis based on the following symptoms:Flashbacks to the traumatizing event or recurrent thoughts and dreams of the experienceDifficulty sleepingOutbursts of angerBeing hyperalert and easily startledLittle interest in daily activitiesFeeling cut off from othersA sense of having a limited future
19Managing Stress Eliminate interaction with the stressor. Change beliefs and goals.Seek support from those you trust.Use a variety of strategies to cope with stress.Practice versatile coping and passive coping.
20What You Can Do About Stress We often contribute to our own stress.Be mindful to decrease the time your mind swirls around the stress in your life.