Presentation on theme: "Comparative adjectives and adverbs fast, faster, the fastest… terrible, more terrible, the most terrible… big, bigger, the biggest… quickly, more quickly,"— Presentation transcript:
Comparative adjectives and adverbs fast, faster, the fastest… terrible, more terrible, the most terrible… big, bigger, the biggest… quickly, more quickly, the quickest… By AJ Brown
What do they look like? My sister is more educated than I am. AJ speaks faster when she is excited. Blueberries are as delicious as raspberries. San Francisco is farther away than Seattle. She is prettier when she smiles. AJ is older than her sister. He moves as slowly as a turtle. Level E is less difficult than level 2.
Why do we use them? We use comparative adjectives and adverbs to compare two nouns or two verbs. Sergio’s calculator is bigger than Kim’s pen. A flu is more dangerous than a cold. Antonio reads faster than I do. Her voice is as sweet as honey. He walks as slowly as a turtle (does). Language is less confusing than math to me.
How to make comparative (for differences) 1)(difference) One-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use …–er than) neat neater than slow slower than late later than sweet sweeter than young younger than dark darker than
How to make a comparative (for differences) Pay attention to one-syllable words: If it ends in C+V+C, double the final C fat fatter than wet wetter than dim dimmer than big bigger than thin thinner than red redder than
How to make a comparative (for differences) 2) (for difference) Three-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/less…than) dangerous more dangerous than beautiful more beautiful than exciting less exciting than important more important than fascinating more fascinating than
How to make a comparative (for differences) 3) (for difference) Most two-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/less…than) famous more famous than cunning more cunning than pleasant more pleasant than careful less careful than shallow more shallow than
How to make a comparative (for differences) 3a) (for difference) Two-syllable adjectives that end in –y (use …ier than) pretty prettier than busy busier than lazy lazier than happy happier than friendly friendlier than
How to make a comparative (for differences) 3b) (for difference) Two-syllable adverbs that end in –ly* (use more/less…than) slowly more slowly than quickly more quickly than carefully less carefully than pleasantly more pleasantly than reliably less reliably than * early is both an adjective and an adverb. Form = earlier
How to make a comparative (for differences) 3c) (for difference) Some two-syllable adjectives use either form (use more/less…than or …er than*) clever more clever than cleverer than gentle more gentle than gentler than friendly more friendly than friendlier than common more common than commoner than * The idea of less is not possible when using the …er form
How to make a comparative (for differences) 4) (for difference) There are some irregular forms (adj.) good better than (adj.) bad worse than (adv.) well better than (adv.) badly worse than (adv.) far farther* than further* than * Both farther and further compare distance, but only further (not farther) can also mean “additional”. (I require further help.)
How to make a comparative (for differences) Modify adjectives and adverbs with much or a little hungry much hungrier than quiet a little quieter than Intriguing much more intriguing than extensive much less extensive than easy a little easier than
How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5) (for same) all adjectives and adverbs (use as … as) strong as quietly as beautiful as difficult as big nearly as big as confusing just as confusing as happy almost as happy as
How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5a) (for same) all negative adjectives and adverbs (use not as … as) strong not as strong as quietly not as quietly as beautiful not as beautiful as difficult not as difficult as big not nearly as big as low not quite as low as
How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of –er/more is expressed by less or not as … as More than one syllable quietly not as quietly as less quietly than difficult not as difficult as less difficult than expensive not as expensive as less expensive than
How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of –er/more is expressed by less or not as … as Only one syllable old not as old as Less old than big not as big as Less big than young not as young as less young than Wrong! Remember that one-syllable words don’t have a less…than form
Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a subject pronoun (he) follows than She is taller than he. In informal English, an object pronoun (him) is often used after than She is taller than him. Writing for your classes NEVER use this form in your writing
Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a comparative can be followed by three different constructions Stephanie is taller than I am. Stephanie is taller than I. Stephanie is taller than am I. This last construction (v+s) is often on the TOEFL exam
Unclear comparisons… Unclear (repeat subject or object?) I like my dog better than my husband. I’ve known Jamal longer than Frieda. Clear Two subject/verb pairs I like my dog better than my husband likes it. I like my dog better than I like my husband. I’ve known Jamal longer than I’ve known Frieda. I’ve known Jamal longer than Frieda has (known him).
Other comparisons… Repeating a comparative Because he was afraid, he walked faster and faster. Life in the modern world is becoming more and more complex. Double comparatives The harder you study, the more you will learn. The warmer the weather is, the happier I am. The sooner, the better. Shows a progressive increase Both parts begin with the + comparative
Using superlatives… The …est The funniest The saddest The wettest The largest The most/least … The most generous The most beautiful The least expensive The most developed Superlatives compare one part of a group to all the other members of the group
Common completions of superlatives + (prepositional phrase) Tokyo is one of the largest cities in the world. This one is the best of all! He is the laziest student in the class. She walks the most slowly of all the children. It is the highest mountain on the island. + (adjective clause) She is the kindest person (that) I have ever met. That was the longest hike (that) I have ever taken. English is the craziest language (that) I’ve ever heard. She writes the most carefully (that) I’ve ever seen.