Presentation on theme: "Comparative adjectives and adverbs"— Presentation transcript:
1Comparative adjectives and adverbs By AJ BrownComparative adjectives and adverbsfast, faster, the fastest…terrible, more terrible, the most terrible…big, bigger, the biggest…quickly, more quickly, the quickest…
2What do they look like? My sister is more educated than I am. AJ speaks faster when she is excited.Blueberries are as delicious as raspberries.San Francisco is farther away than Seattle.She is prettier when she smiles.AJ is older than her sister.He moves as slowly as a turtle.Level E is less difficult than level 2.
3Why do we use them?We use comparative adjectives and adverbs to compare two nouns or two verbs.Sergio’s calculator is bigger than Kim’s pen.A flu is more dangerous than a cold.Antonio reads faster than I do.Her voice is as sweet as honey.He walks as slowly as a turtle (does).Language is less confusing than math to me.
4How to make comparative (for differences) (difference) One-syllable adjectives and adverbs(use …–er than)neat neater thanslow slower thanlate later thansweet sweeter thanyoung younger thandark darker than1 syllable = …er than
5How to make a comparative (for differences) Pay attention to one-syllable words:If it ends in C+V+C, double the final Cfat fatter thanwet wetter thandim dimmer thanbig bigger thanthin thinner thanred redder than
6How to make a comparative (for differences) 2) (for difference) Three-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/less…than) dangerous more dangerous than beautiful more beautiful than exciting less exciting than important more important than fascinating more fascinating than3 syllables = more…than
7How to make a comparative (for differences) 3) (for difference) Most two-syllable adjectives and adverbs (use more/less…than) famous more famous than cunning more cunning than pleasant more pleasant than careful less careful than shallow more shallow thanmost 2 syllables = more…than
8How to make a comparative (for differences) 3a) (for difference) Two-syllable adjectives that end in –y (use …ier than) pretty prettier than busy busier than lazy lazier than happy happier than friendly friendlier thanadj. + -y =-er…than
9How to make a comparative (for differences) 3b) (for difference) Two-syllable adverbs that end in –ly*(use more/less…than)slowly more slowly thanquickly more quickly thancarefully less carefully thanpleasantly more pleasantly thanreliably less reliably than* early is both an adjective and an adverb. Form = earlieradv. + -ly = more…than
10How to make a comparative (for differences) 3c) (for difference) Some two-syllable adjectives use either form(use more/less…than or …er than*)clever more clever thancleverer thangentle more gentle thangentler thanfriendly more friendly thanfriendlier thancommon more common thancommoner than* The idea of less is not possible when using the …er formYou just have to memorize these!
11How to make a comparative (for differences) 4) (for difference) There are some irregular forms(adj.) good better than(adj.) bad worse than(adv.) well better than(adv.) badly worse than(adv.) far farther* thanfurther* than* Both farther and further compare distance, but only further (not farther) can also mean “additional”. (I require further help.)You just have to memorize these!
12How to make a comparative (for differences) Modify adjectives and adverbs with much or a little hungry much hungrier than quiet a little quieter than Intriguing much more intriguing than extensive much less extensive than easy a little easier than
13How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5) (for same) all adjectives and adverbs (use as … as) strong as strong as quietly as quietly as beautiful as beautiful as difficult as difficult as big nearly as big as confusing just as confusing as happy almost as happy asCommon modifiers = just or nearly/almost
14How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5a) (for same) all negative adjectives and adverbs (use not as … as) strong not as strong as quietly not as quietly as beautiful not as beautiful as difficult not as difficult as big not nearly as big as low not quite as low asCommon modifiers = not quite or not nearly
15How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of –er/more is expressed by less or not as … as More than one syllable quietly not as quietly as less quietly than difficult not as difficult as less difficult than expensive not as expensive as less expensive than
16How to make a comparative (equal or same) 5b) the opposite of –er/more is expressed by less or not as … as Only one syllable old not as old as Less old than big not as big as Less big than young not as young as less young thanRemember that one-syllable words don’t have a less…thanformWrong!Wrong!Wrong!
17Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a subject pronoun (he) follows thanShe is taller than he.In informal English, an object pronoun (him) is often used after thanShe is taller than him.Writing for your classesNEVER use this form in your writing
18Completing a comparative In formal academic English, a comparative can be followed by three different constructionsStephanie is taller than I am.Stephanie is taller than I.Stephanie is taller than am I.This last construction (v+s) is often on the TOEFL exam
19(repeat subject or object?) Two subject/verb pairs Unclear comparisons…Unclear(repeat subject or object?)ClearTwo subject/verb pairsI like my dog better than my husband.I’ve known Jamal longer than Frieda.I like my dog better than my husband likes it.I like my dog better than I like my husband.I’ve known Jamal longer than I’ve known Frieda.I’ve known Jamal longer than Frieda has (known him).
20Both parts begin with the + comparative Shows a progressive increase Other comparisons…Repeating a comparativeDouble comparativesBecause he was afraid, he walked faster and faster.Life in the modern world is becoming more and more complex.The harder you study, the more you will learn.The warmer the weather is, the happier I am.The sooner, the better.Both parts begin with the + comparativeShows a progressive increase
21Using superlatives… The …est The most/least … The funniest The saddest The wettestThe largestThe most generousThe most beautifulThe least expensiveThe most developedSuperlatives compare one part of a group to all the other members of the group
22Common completions of superlatives + (prepositional phrase)+ (adjective clause)Tokyo is one of the largest cities in the world.This one is the best of all!He is the laziest student in the class.She walks the most slowly of all the children.It is the highest mountain on the island.She is the kindest person (that) I have ever met.That was the longest hike (that) I have ever taken.English is the craziest language (that) I’ve ever heard.She writes the most carefully (that) I’ve ever seen.