Presentation on theme: "Making comparisons B2-level - using comparatives to show how the qualities of two people or things can be compared - using superlatives to show how three."— Presentation transcript:
Making comparisons B2-level - using comparatives to show how the qualities of two people or things can be compared - using superlatives to show how three or more can be compared
3 types of comparison 1. to a higher degree (comparative form + than) Bill is richer than John. He drives more carefully than I do. 2. to the same degree (we use the structure as…as) Jane is as clever as her sister. John didn´t do as well as Helen in the exam. 3. to a lower degree (we use less + than and the least) I´m less interested in reading than I used to be. He usually buys the least expensive clothes.
other forms so … as can be used in negative statements instead of as…as Computers are not as / so expensive as they were. She didn´t work as / so hard as she could to finish early. Be careful: in positive sentences and in questions you cannot use so…as but only as…as Could you try and get here as quickly as you can, please? She worked as hard as she could to finish early.
as much/many/little/few …. as in comparisons we use this structure without a we cannot use more/less/several etc. Bill doesn´t have as much money as Josh. If she had as little money as he did, she wouldn´t buy such expensive things. Bill doesn´t eat as many meals as she does. If she had as few meals as Bill, she would be thinner. the same (as) – always use the! you can use exactly to emphasise Their car is the same as ours. Their car is exactly the same as ours.
repeating comparatives – is used to say that sth is changing (increasing or decreasing) all the time, usually with the Present Continuous a)comparative adj+and+comparative adj = changing all the time: She was getting more and more nervous. b)the+comparative adj+verb+the+comparative adj+verb = two things change at the same time: The older I get, the wiser I become. c)the+comparative adj+the+comparative adj = used in common phrases: the bigger the better, the sooner the better
revise basics – one-syllable adjectives 1. most one-syllable adj. form the comparative by adding - er and the superlative by adding –est cheap – cheaper – the cheapest shy – shyer – the shyest tall – taller – the tallest young – younger – the youngest !! one-syllable adj. ending –ed cannot take –er, -est. We use more/most: bored – more bored – the most bored worried – more worried – the most worried
2. one-syllable and two-syllable adjectives ending in –e form the comparative and superlative by adding –r and – st safe – safer – the safest close – closer – the closest gentle – gentler – the gentlest polite – politer – the politest !! two-syllable adj. ending in –e also form the comparative and superlative using more and most gentle – more gentle – the most gentle polite – more polite – the most polite
3. one-syllable adj. ending in a short vowel and a cosonant form the comparative and superlative by doubling the consonant and then adding –er and –est big – bigger – the biggest fat – fatter – the fattest !!but if the vowel is long, do not double the consonant: great – greater – the greatest late – later – the latest cheap – cheaper – the cheapest
revise basics – two (and more)- syllable adjectives most of these adj. form the comparative and superlative with more and most common – more common – the most common tired – more tired – the most tired careless – more careless – the most careless expensive – more expensive – the most expensive !! two-syllables adj. ending in – y first change y ˃ i and add –er and –est angry – angrier – the angriest busy – busier – the busiest
revise basics – irregular adj. good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst little – less – the least much – more – the most many – more – the most far – farther / further – the farthest / the furthest old – older – the oldest elder – the eldest (when talking about people in a family)
revise basics – one-syllable adverbs these take –er and –est (as adjectives) fast – faster – the fastest high – higher – the highest late – later – the latest near – nearer – the nearest slow – slower – the slowest loud – louder – the loudest hard – harder – the hardest early – earlier – the earliest (!!) She arrived earlier (NOT more early) than expected. She arrived (the) earliest of them all.
revise basics – two or more syllables nearly all adverbs of two syllables or more use more/less… and (the) most/(the) least… to form the comparative and superlative !!!even though they are of two syllables and end in – y quietly – more/less quietly – (the) most/least quietly often – more/less often – (the) most/least often carefully – more/less carefully – (the) most/least carefully beautifully – more/less beautifully – (the) most/least beautifully
revise basics – irregular adverbs well – better – best badly – worse – worst much – more – most little – less – least a lot – more – most far – further/farther – furthest/farthest