Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: The Federal Courts The Supreme Court played a minor role in American govt. until Chief Justice John Marshall was appointed in 1801 Jurisdiction."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11: The Federal Courts The Supreme Court played a minor role in American govt. until Chief Justice John Marshall was appointed in 1801 Jurisdiction of the Courts The U.S. judiciary consists of state & federal courts. State courts are governed by state constitutions Federal court system consists of the Supreme Court & lower federal courts established by Congress
Federal Court Jurisdiction Jurisdiction: the authority to hear certain cases Concurrent Jurisdiction: U.S. has a dual court system where jurisdiction between state and federal courts may overlap. Exp. A case involving people of 2 different states for more than $50,000 The case where a case in originally tried is called the trial court. A trial court has original jurisdiction A person may take a case to a court with appellate jurisdiction.
Developing Supreme Court Power The Supreme Court must wait for litigants to come before them Madison v. Marbury, 1803: President Adams’ ‘midnight judges’ This case gave the court the important power of judicial review Other Important Cases in the Development of the Supreme Court Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 Due process clause Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954
Supreme Court Supreme Court has both original and appellate jurisdiction Most cases that the Supreme Court hears are appellate in composition, and involve a Constitutional issue. 9 justices sit on the Supreme Court, they are appointed by the President, confirmed by the Senate, and their tenure is for life. Every Supreme Court case produces two opinions 1. Majority Opinion (Concurring opinion) 2. Dissenting Opinion