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Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy & Physiology Gk. anatom upcut Gk. physiología science of natural causes FORMFUNCTION
“All specific functions are performed by specific structures” pg. 4 automobile analogy
Anatomy Gross surface regional systemic developmental (embryology) clinical visible with eye
Anatomy Microscopic anatomy cytology (Chapter 3) histology (Chapter 4)
Physiology cell- special- systemic- pathological- “cornerstone” e.g.,cardiac reprod. disease
Levels of Organization chemical cellular tissues organs organ systems organism chapter 2 chapter 3 chapter 4 chapters 5 to 29
Levels of Organization insert fig.1-1 pg. 7
Fluids: inside cells outside cells - cytoplasm intracellular (ICF) - tissue fluid extracellular (ECF)
Homeostasis Mechanisms to maintain stable internal environment the body monitors/adjusts: volume of body fluids composition of body fluids body temperature
Homeostatic regulation: autoregulation extrinsic regulation adjustment within organ… nervous/endocrine system
Homeostatic regulation: autoregulation low O 2 levels in organ -release chemicals -dilate blood vessels -bring in more O 2
Homeostatic regulation: extrinsic regulation control by nervous or endocrine system
Homeostatic regulation: nervous system responses are: rapid short-term specific e.g. reflex
Homeostatic regulation: endocrine system responses are: slower long term
Homeostatic regulation: keep internal environment within certain limits
Homeostatic regulation: Three part mechanism: receptor (stimulus) control center effector
Homeostatic regulation: room temperature: receptor control center effector thermometer thermostat air conditioner stimulus ? warm air
Homeostatic regulation: room temperature: warm air temperature turns on air conditioner cools air temperature effector negates stimulus negative feedback
Negative feedback: most commom thermoregulation “set point” “range”
Positive feedback: not as common exaggerated responses e.g., blood clot formation
Homeostasis: Mechanisms to maintain stable internal environment equilibrium body temperature balance dynamic
Homeostasis: systems influence each other their activity needs to be integrated
Homeostasis: systems influence each other their activity needs to be integrated when malfunctions occurs: illness or disease
Anatomical references: Using in lab and lecture Based on: Latin Greek eponyms Homo sapiens pterygoid Golgi apparatus
Anatomical references: landmarks
Anatomical references: landmarks regions fig. 1-7
Anatomical directions reference is subject not observer anatomical position see fig. 1-8, pg. 18
Anatomical directions anteriorposterior ventraldorsal superiorinferior cranial caudal superficial deep proximal distal antonyms vs. synonyms
Anatomical planes and sections 3 planes transverse frontal (coronal) sagittal longitudinal) cranial/caudal dorsal/ventral left/right
Body cavities Most major organs are suspended in cavities embryologically:coelom
Body cavities 2 major cavities coelom diaphragm peritoneal (abdominopelvic) thoracic pleural peri- cardial 4 quiz?
Body cavities each cavity has two layers visceral parietal on organs outer wall
Body cavities fist balloon
Body cavities fist balloon
Body cavities fist balloon
Body cavities fist balloon
Body cavities Is the fist inside the balloon? fist balloon
Body cavities replace fist with heart ? cavity two layers inner (visceral) outer (parietal)
cavity miscellany peritoneal cavity (abdominopelvic) abdominal pelvic
Anatomical miscellany some “abdominal” organs are “behind” the peritoneal cavity retroperitoneal e.g., kidneys, etc
The Skeleton axial appendicular # 7 # 8
axial skeleton fig. 7-1
axial skeleton fig. 7-1b
The Skeleton appendicular pectoral girdle + append. pelvic girdle + append.
appendicular skeleton fig. 8-1
The Skeleton bone shape and structure
Joint Classsification (9) Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis no movement very little movement freely movable
Joint Classsification (9) Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis sutureparietal bones synchondrosisepiphyseal disc syndesmosistibia-fibula symphysispubis free movementmany
Joint Classsification (9) Diarthrosis diarthodial joints = synovial joints bone articular cartilage “ capsule synovial cavity “ fluid
Joint Classsification (9) ligaments ACL, PCL lateral col. meniscicart. patella
Joint Classsification (9) Diarthrosis diarthodial joints = synovial joints many different types
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy Describes the structures of the body: –what they are made of –where they are located –associated.
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Anatomy – Structure Physiology - Function. Gross Anatomy Regional Anatomy Systemic Anatomy Surface Anatomy Developmental Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy –Cytology.
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What is anatomy and physiology?. Anatomy Describes the structures of the body: what they are made of (histology) where they are located associated structures.
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Anatomy – Greek for “a cutting open” Study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts Physiology.
INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Learning Objectives Describe the basic functions of organisms. Define anatomy and physiology and the various specialties.
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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY CHAPTER FIELDS OF ANATOMY GROSS ANATOMY MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY SYSTEMIC ANATOMY SURFACE ANATOMY CYTOLOGY.
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Homeostatic Regulation Homeostasis Maintains stable internal conditions Temperature Ionic concentrations Blood sugar levels, etc. Utilizes negative feedback.
INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. DEFINITIONS Anatomy -“to cut apart” -Study of Bodily Structure -Includes: *Systemic or Regional *Gross or Microscopic.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College—North Harris 1 - Lecture An Introduction to.
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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 Introducing… Let’s.
1 Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction to A & P.
Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 Introducing… Let’s Get Organized Homeostasis.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Betsy C. Brantley Valencia College C H A P T E R 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology © 2017 Pearson Education,
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