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Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

2 Anatomy Describes structures of the body: What they are made of Where they are located Associated structures

3 Physiology Is the study of: Functions of anatomical structures Individual and cooperative functions

4 KEY CONCEPT All physiological functions are performed by specific anatomical structures These functions follow standard physical and mechanical principles

5 Specialties of Anatomy Gross anatomy: Examines large, visible structures: Surface anatomy: Exterior features Regional anatomy: Body areas Systemic anatomy: Groups of organs working together

6 Specialties of Anatomy Developmental: Embryology Microscopic anatomy: Cells and molecules: Cytology: Cells and their structures Histology: Tissues and their structures

7 Organization from Simple to Complex (1 of 2) Atoms the smallest chemical units Molecules groups of atoms working together Organelles groups of molecules working together Cells group of organelles working together

8 Simple to Complex (2 of 2) Tissues similar cells working together Organs different tissues working together Organ systems a group of organs working together Organism is an individual

9 The 11 Organ Systems Endocrine Neurological Skeletal Muscular Integumentary Renal Cardiac Lymphatic Respiratory Gastrointestinal Reproductive

10 KEY CONCEPT The body is divided into 11 organ systems All organ systems work together

11 KEY CONCEPT Homeostasis: All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance)

12 KEY CONCEPT Failure to function within a normal range results in disease

13 Mechanisms of Regulation Autoregulation: Intrinsic Automatic response in: cell, tissue, or organ Extrinsic regulation: Responses controlled by: Nervous system Endocrine systems

14 Maintaining Normal Limits Figure 1–3

15 Maintaining Normal Limits Receptor: Receives the stimulus Control center: Processes the signal & sends instructions Effector: Carries out instructions

16 Figure 1–4 Negative Feedback The response of the effector negates the stimulus

17 Positive Feedback The response of the effector reinforces the stimulus Figure 1–5

18 System Integration: Working Together Table 1–1

19 KEY CONCEPT Homeostasis: A state of equilibrium: Opposing forces working in balance Physiological systems work to restore balance Failure results in disease or death

20 Anatomical Landmarks Figure 1–6

21 KEY CONCEPT Anatomical position: Facing forward Hands at sides, palms forward Supine: Lying down, face up Prone: Lying down, face down

22 Figure 1–7a Abdominopelvic Quadrants 4 abdominopelvic quadrants around umbilicus

23 Figure 1–7b Abdominopelvic Regions

24 Figure 1–7c Abdominopelvic Organs

25 Which Direction? Figure 1–8

26 Which Direction? Lateral - side view Frontal - front view Anatomical direction: Patients left or right

27 3 Dimensions Figure 1–9

28 The Ventral Body Cavity Divided by the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity Figure 1–10a

29 Figure 1–10c Dividing the Cavities Thoracic cavity: Divided by the mediastinum into 2 pleural cavities

30 SUMMARY Structure and function Vocabulary and anatomical terms Levels of physical organization Homeostasis and feedback Systems integration and equilibrium Dividing and describing the body Locations and functions of major organ systems

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