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Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1

2 - Internal and external structure - Physical relationships among body parts Microscopic anatomy Study of: Gross anatomy

3 Study of: - human body function Most physiological processes occur to maintain “Homeostasis”

4 Homeostasis “Steady State” Maintain stable internal conditions regardless of external environment  Temperature  Blood pressure  Ionic concentrations  Blood sugar levels, etc. But there is a challenge…

5 STRESS To deal with stress we use Feedback Mechanisms: Control system Response (effect) = anything that disrupts homeostasis Stress (stimulus)

6  Negative Feedback: ◦ Variation outside normal limits triggers automatic corrective response ◦ Response opposes stimulus (& therefore negates effect)

7  Negative Feedback: Homeostasis Stress Results in loss of homeostasis Negative feedback response Results in return to homeostasis

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises Normal condition disturbed HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature RESPONSE: Room temperature drops Normal condition restored EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on Sends commands to Information affects CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) 20 o 30 o 40 o Figure of 6

9  Positive Feedback: ◦ Stimulus produces response that reinforces the stimulus

10  Positive Feedback: Homeostasis Stress Results in loss of homeostasis Positive feedback response Further loss of homeo- stasis

11  Chemical (or Molecular)  Cellular  Tissue  Organ  Organ System  Organism Life is built on successive levels of increasing complexity:

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Figure of 7 Chemical

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Heart muscle cell Protein filaments Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Figure of 7 Cellular

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiac muscle tissue Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Heart muscle cell Protein filaments Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Figure of 7 Tissue Epithelial tissues Connective tissues Muscle tissues Neural (nervous) tissue

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiovascular Organ Level The heart Cardiac muscle tissue Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Heart muscle cell Protein filaments Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Figure of 7 Organ

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Level The heart Cardiac muscle tissue Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Heart muscle cell Protein filaments Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Organ System Level (Chapters 5–20) Figure of 7 Organ System

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Level The heart Cardiac muscle tissue Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Heart muscle cell Protein filaments Complex protein molecule Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Organism Level Organ System Level (Chapters 5–20) Figure of 7 Organism

18  Standardized terminology  Based on Latin & Greek word parts  Utilizes root words, modified with prefixes &/or suffixes

19 Figure 1-6(a)

20 Standard reference position  Hands at side  Palms forward  Feet together Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

21 Superior Inferior

22 Superior Inferior Cephalic Cranial Caudal

23 Superior Inferior Cephalic Cranial Caudal Anterior or ventral Posterior or dorsal

24 Superior Inferior Cephalic Cranial Caudal Anterior or ventral Posterior or dorsal Lateral Medial

25 Superior Inferior Cephalic Cranial Caudal Anterior or ventral Posterior or dorsal Proximal Distal LateralMedial

26 Superficial Deep Prone Supine

27  Sagittal  midsagittal  parasagittal  Coronal/Frontal  Cross-section Longitudinal planes/sections Transverse Plane

28  Cranial cavity  Spinal cavity  Ventral body cavity

29 Diaphragm subdivides ventral cavity into: Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity

30 Thoracic cavity Pleural cavities (R and L) Mediastinum Pericardial cavity

31 Abdominopelvic cavity: Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

32 Standard system of measurement used in science & around the world Based on units of 10 Utilizes a standard metric unit depending upon whether you are measuring length – meter (m) volume – liter (L) mass – gram (g)

33 The standard units of measurement (m, L, g) can be modified by the addition of a prefix, which will change the value of the measurement The most commonly used prefixes include:  mega (M) = 1,000,000  kilo (k) – 1000  centi (c) – 1/100  milli (m) – 1/1000  micro ( u ) – 1/1,000,000  nano (n) – 1/1,000,000,000

34 To change from smaller units --> larger units, you must DIVIDE by the appropriate factor of 10 (because there or less larger units that fit into the number). ie: 1 millimeter (1mm) = 1/1000 meters = m 5 millimeters (5mm) = 5/10 centimeters (cm) = 0.5 cm Note:dividing a number by a factor of 10 is the same thing as moving the decimal point to the LEFT.

35 To change from larger units --> smaller units, you must MULTIPLY by the appropriate factor of 10 (because there are more smaller units that go into the number). ie:5 km = 5,000 m 3 kg (kilograms) = 3,000,000 mg (milligrams) = 3x 10 6 mg Note: multiplying a number by a factor of 10 is the same as moving the decimal to the RIGHT.

36 Multiply------>---->----> l__l__ l__l___l____l_____l_____l___l__ _l_ _l_ _l__l__ l __l__l M k h da "unit“ d c m u n (m/l/g) <------<------< Divide


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