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Development of Critical Thinking and Creativity Practical Guidelines for the Post-Secondary Classroom.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of Critical Thinking and Creativity Practical Guidelines for the Post-Secondary Classroom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of Critical Thinking and Creativity Practical Guidelines for the Post-Secondary Classroom

2 Agenda Overview and Introductions Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education MBTI ® and Creativity and Critical Thinking Recommended Actions for Technical Instructors Break (10 minutes) Personality Diversity and Teamwork Team Activity Conclusion and Wrap-up R

3 Workshop Overview Critical and creative thinking are essential to problem solving, decision making, and effective practice. Learning to think critically and creatively alters the outcome of technical education from that of simply gaining knowledge to gaining the abilities to analytically and innovatively explore that knowledge. Based on personality theory, instructors and students typically have intrinsic strength in critical thinking or creativity, not both. This workshop will assist participants to recognize their own natural tendencies and help them create lesson plans that can develop student’s ability to think both critically and creatively. An additional objective is to understand and experience the power of personality differences and effective teamwork. R

4 Facilitator Introduction Dr. Dianna Nicholls Registered nurse in critical care, mental health, home care nursing, and geriatrics Instructor in business for St Clair County Community College in Michigan Recent graduate--University of Phoenix Doctor of Health Administration program Dr. Linda de Charon. Degrees in engineering, Systems Technology, and a Ph.D. in Management Supported federal government aerospace programs, including the space shuttle and satellite programs, as an engineer and a strategic planner for nearly 30 years Instructor with the University of Phoenix School of Advanced Studies since 2004 Dr. Ron Hutkin Associate degree in Machine Tool Technology and a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Ed, an M.S. in Technical Education, and a Ph.D. in Higher Education Public Community Colleges, Technical Institutes, and Proprietary Schools administrator serving in as Dean, President, and Chancellor Editorial committee member for the ATEA journal, and doctoral instructor with the University of Phoenix since 2004 R

5 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Socrates once said, “To find yourself, think for yourself” From the period of Socrates to the present day, scholars have realized that the abilities to reason and to think critically are important and necessary outcomes of education D

6 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education (cont.) Thinking is made up of three dimensions: reflective creative and critical Reflective thinking perceives challenges, opportunities, and experiences. D

7 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education (cont.) Creativity involves forming ideas to solve problems and resolve issues through techniques such as brainstorming, analogy, and visualization Creativity involves seeking new, unique, and original ways to resolve problems; creativity accentuates the originality and uniqueness of ideas D

8 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education (cont.) Critical thinking is a process that involves evaluating ideas and identifying the best ones and includes developing the ability to separate fact from opinion, recognizing reasoning errors, analyzing arguments, and making ethical judgments D

9 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education (cont.) Students can develop critical thinking skills such as conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating through: Observation Experience Reflection And Communication in classes Problem solving requires an educational environment in which students can ask questions and identify problems that require in-depth thinking while formulating answers D

10 Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education Importance of Creativity and Critical Thinking in Technical Education (cont.) Technical educators should recognize that critical and creative thinking are essential to decision making, problem solving, and effective practice Learning to think critically and creatively alters the outcome of technical education from that of simply gaining knowledge to gaining the abilities to analytically and innovatively explore the knowledge received By systematically employing critical and creative thinking skills to real life situations, technical education students can learn to view issues and solutions in a broader context of possibilities rather than as absolutes D

11 MBTI ® The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI ® ) is commonly used instrument to identify cognitive preferences and personality. Developed by Isabel Myers and Katharine Briggs in 1943, the MBTI is based on Carl Jung’s psychological type theories. Over three million individuals complete this psychometric (psychological testing) instrument each year. L

12 MBTI ® Dichotomies This instrument assesses self-perceptions on four dichotomies: Extroversion-Introversion (E-I) Sensing-iNtuition (S-N) Thinking-Feeling (T-F) Judging-Perceiving (J-P) The Sensing-iNtuition (S-N) dichotomy indicates a preference toward critical thinking (sensing) or toward creativity (intuition) L

13 MBTI Dichotomies Extroversion Introversion Sensing iNtuition Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving relating with others information gathering and processing decision-making organizing self and others L

14 While both styles of information gathering and processing are used by all people, each of us tends to favor one over the other. The Sensing (S) side of the brain notices the sights, sounds, smells and all the sensory details of the PRESENT. It categorizes, organizes, records and stores current data. It provides the details of memories from PAST events. The Intuitive (N) side of our brain seeks to understand, interpret and form overall patterns of information and records these patterns and relationships. It speculates, including looking into and forecasting the FUTURE. It is imaginative and conceptual. Information Gathering and Processing Styles L Sensing iNtuition information gathering and processing

15 I pay attention to reality; what I see, hear, touch, taste, and smell. I am concerned with what is actual, present, current, and real. I notice facts and I remember details that are important to me. I like to see the practical use of things and learn best when I see how to use what I’m learning. Experience speaks to me louder than words. The following statements generally apply to me: I remember events as snapshots of what actually happened. I solve problems by working through facts until I understand the problem. I am pragmatic and look to the “bottom line.” I start with facts and then form a big picture. I trust experience first and trust words and symbols less. Sometimes I pay so much attention to facts, either present or past, that I miss new possibilities. Self-Assessment: Sensor Attributes L

16 I pay attention to impressions or the meaning and patterns of information. I prefer to learn by thinking a problem through rather than by hands-on. I’m more interested in what might be possible than what is now possible. I like to work with symbols or abstract theories. I remember events more as impressions than as actual facts or details. The following statements generally apply to me: I remember events by what I read “between the lines”. I solve problems by considering different ideas and possibilities. I am interested in doing things that are new and different. I like to see the big picture, then to find out the facts. I trust impressions and metaphors more than actual experiences. Sometimes I think so much about new possibilities that I never look at how to make them a reality. Self-Assessment: Intuitor Attributes L

17 Nature vs. Nurture Intrinsic preferences are later shaped by our life- long learning experiences By the age of 3 years old, the core of a individual’s cognitive structure is fairly developed, although the brain continues to allow some flexibility until around the age of 12 Beginning in our teens, our education and life experiences begin to synthesize with our intrinsic personality, resulting in an integration of nature and nurture L

18 Population and Gender Differences 65-75% of the population are sensors % of the population are intuitors. Of the population who rely on intuition, the majority are males. Attributes generally associated with “women’s intuition” are measured on the Thinking/Feeling dichotomy rather than the Sensing/Intuition dichotomy % of women prefer feeling and 55-80% of men prefer thinking. L

19 L Sensors tend to rely on the left brain hemisphere. Although controversial, some contend that left-brained critical-thinking sensors see the woman spinning counter- clockwise Intuitors tend to rely on the right brain hemisphere. Although controversial, some contend that right- brained, creative intuitors see the woman spinning clockwise

20 Indentifying Types Technical instructors should identify students that perceive data based on characteristics associated with sensing (S), and those who perceive data based on characteristics associated with intuition (N). Instructors should actively engage students in the course content and ask questions to identify students' preferences for perceiving data and for developing solutions. D

21 Indentifying Types (cont) The techniques of telling, listening, asking, and being aware can be used to identify students’ preferences. D

22 Recommended Actions for Technical Instructors There is a natural inclination to believe that others process information and make decisions the same way as you Avoid the “golden rule” in the classroom “Treat others as you would have them treat you” Apply the “platinum rule” in the classroom “Treat others as they wish to be treated” D

23 Effectively Dealing with Sensors in the Classroom Show evidence: Facts Details Examples etc. Be practical and realistic; grounded. Be direct. Show logical sequence of steps. D

24 Effectively Dealing with Sensors in the Classroom (cont) Have a well-thought-out plan with details worked out in advance. Use concepts and strategies sparingly -- concentrate more on the day-to-day consequences of a plan. D

25 Effectively Dealing with Intuitors in the Classroom Present ideas and global concept first, then draw out the details. Avoid presenting details unless asked—otherwise, details may be viewed as unnecessary “overload” When provided an idea, hypothesis, or summary, do not ask for details; accept the intuitive conclusion at face value as a working hypothesis. D

26 Effectively Dealing with Intuitors in the Classroom (cont) Be patient; work may occur in bursts. Let them dream; encourage their imagination. D

27 Developing Balanced Styles Once students’ areas of strength have been identified, instructors can focus on developing the non-preferred style. Consider dividing students into two groups based on their current style of gathering and processing information. design individualized sessions to engage the groups in exercises that focus on developing the non-preferred style. D

28 A Curriculum for Sensors A curriculum specifically designed for sensors should focus on helping them learn to develop more creative solutions Help sensing students improve their creativity skills by emphasizing an environment that requires in-depth thinking as opposed to rote responses. Problems should be relevant and challenging with active student involvement. D

29 A Curriculum for Sensors Open ended questions should be included to encourage learner curiosity and creativity. Brainstorming sessions can help students consider visionary goals and creative ideas without judgment. Practicing the intuitive preferences of visualization and abstract thinking can help students develop creativity. D

30 A Curriculum for Intuitors A curriculum specifically designed for intuitors should focus on helping them learn to improve and rely on their critical thinking skills during problem solving. Helping intuitive students improve their critical thinking skills requires that students focus on more structured solutions. D

31 A Curriculum for Intuitors (cont) An exercise to develop sensing capabilities is to have students visualize a broad, creative, long-term solution and dissect it into tangible, practical, and measurable steps. This activity enables students to understand and appreciate the actual requirements necessary to accomplish the goal. Recognizing the details required to accomplish solutions will help intuitors evaluate options based on reality and help them remain grounded and critical in their thinking. D

32 10 Minute Break 10 Minute Break Please return promptly After the break, a fun activity to explore the importance of critical thinking and creativity within teamwork R

33 Team Dynamics Recognition of individual patterns of behavior allows unique contributions to be valued by team members Identifying personal styles of processing information is essential for effective teamwork. Awareness of personal preferences can assist a team improve interpersonal communication and develop an increased understanding of and appreciation for individual approaches. Effective teamwork requires a well-rounded, comprehensive skill set and appreciation for team member’s individual styles of thinking and communicating. R

34 Teamwork in Technical Fields Effective teamwork is essential in all technical fields: Construction technology Automotive technology Emergency dispatch/paramedics/medical technicians Health occupations technology and nursing Engineering technology R

35 Effective teambuilding is based on recognizing the team strengths and identifying limitations The Team Management Index (TMI) (Margerison & McCann, 2000) delineates eight specific work functions necessary within high performance teams These researchers contend that each of the eight types of work should be present for optimal team performance, regardless of the team’s objectives Effective Teambuilding L

36 Types of Work Wheel (c) Prado Limited, 1995, 2000 Advising: Gathering and reporting information Innovating: Creating and experimenting Promoting: Exploring & presenting opportunities Developing: Assessing & testing new approaches Organizing: Strategizing the goals & objectives Producing: Implementing goals & objectives Inspecting: Auditing functionality of systems Maintaining: Upholding standards & procedures L

37 The Team Management (TMI) is based on Carl Jung’s psychological types, which is also the theoretical basis for the MBTI The TMI uses similar dichotomies as the MBTI and superimposes these dichotomies onto the eight types of work model. The resultant model aligns personality types with preferred types of work. TMI Dichotomies L

38 TMI/MBTI Dichotomies extrovert introvert practical /sensing creative/intuition analytical /thinking beliefs/ feeling structured /judging flexible/ perceiving relating with others decision-making organizing self and others information gathering and processing L

39 Types of Work/Individual Preferences Extrovert Analytical Structured Practical Creative Flexible Beliefs Introvert (c) Prado Limited, 1995, 2000 L

40 Types of Work/MBTI Types Extrovert Analytical Structured Practical Creative Flexible Beliefs Introvert (c) Prado Limited, 1995, 2000 ENFP ENFJ Sensors Intuitors ENTP INTP ENTJ INTJ ESTJ ESTP ISTJ ISTP ISFJ ESFJ ISFP ESFP INFP INFJ Intuitors Sensors L

41 MBTI Types/Types of Work Intuitors INFP/INFJ - Advising Gathering and reporting information ENFP/ENFJ - Innovating Creating and experimenting with ideas ENTP/INTP – Promoting Exploring and presenting opportunities ENTJ/INTJ - Developing Assessing/testing new approaches Sensors ESTJ/ESTP - Organizing Strategizing the goals & objectives ISTJ/ISTP – Producing Implementing the goals & objectives ISFJ/ESFJ – Inspecting Controlling and auditing systems ISFP/ESFP – Maintaining Upholding standards and procedures L

42 Rocket Race Each team will use materials to design the “rocket” that will go the farthest along the string Materials—1 sheet of paper, 1 balloon, 1 straw, tape, critical thinking, and creativity (1 replacement balloon per team will be available in the event of catastrophic failure during test) Teams will have 30 minutes to design, develop, and test their rockets prior to the competition Following the competition, teams will debrief their process D

43 Team Debriefs: Types of Work Used During the Activity Intuitors INFP/INFJ - Advising Gathering and reporting information ENFP/ENFJ - Innovating Creating and experimenting with ideas ENTP/INTP – Promoting Exploring and presenting opportunities ENTJ/INTJ - Developing Assessing/testing new approaches Sensors ESTJ/ESTP - Organizing Strategizing the goals & objectives ISTJ/ISTP – Producing Implementing the goals & objectives ISFJ/ESFJ – Inspecting Controlling and auditing systems ISFP/ESFP – Maintaining Upholding standards and procedures R

44 Conclusion Within the individual preferences for perceiving information, sensors (S) tend to be naturally critical in their thinking processes and intuitors (N) tend to be more creative. Technical education should develop habits of thought that require both critical thinking and creativity in the framework of realistic situations and experience. Technical education students require practice to evaluate data and solve technical problems both critically and creatively. Creating lesson plans that focus on developing students’ specific needs can provide inspiration, generate challenges, offer personal encouragement, and empower development of the ability to think critically and creatively. R

45 Conclusion (cont.) Effective teamwork requires a blend of diverse personalities to successfully accomplish each of the types of work required within technical tasks. Instructors should provide inspiration, generate challenges, and offer personal encouragement to empower students to develop the ability to critically think with creativity in individual and team projects. The ability to think both critically and creatively may enhance students’ technical capabilities, professional aptitude, and personal confidence. R

46 MBTI Self-Assessment Website MBTI Self-Assessment Website The following website can be used to take a free test similar to the MBTI: D

47 Thanks for participating! Questions or Comments? D


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