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China: 1949-1980s People’s Republic of China # 9.

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Presentation on theme: "China: 1949-1980s People’s Republic of China # 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 China: 1949-1980s People’s Republic of China # 9

2 Mao and Communism Victorious October 1949: Mao and Peoples Liberation Army win Jiang Jishi and Nationalists flee to Taiwan

3 Republic of China (Taiwan) Jiang and Nationalists:  Establish Republic of China  Violently repress Taiwanese  Govern as if they were CHINA  Enact land reform (no longer tied to Gentry)  Defended by US, 7 th Fleet  Engage in business revolution  Brilliantly successful economy  Nationalist Dictatorship  Holds seat at UN as “CHINA”

4 Republic of China (Taiwan) Jiang Kaishek (Jishi) dies in 1984  Jiang Ching Kuo (son takes over)  Begins democratic reforms  Dies 1988  Real Democratic Elections in 1988 Tensions between Taiwan and China have been very tense and continue to be tense at times. Taiwan today is economically advanced, wealthy and democratic society Officially still a province of China, but functioning as a separate nation

5 People’s Republic: 1949 + Mao Establishes Single Party government  Centralized under Chinese Communist Party  Restores order  Organizes production and food distribution  Eliminates mass starvation within 3 years  Land Reform: land to the peasants

6 People’s Republic  Class Backgrounds Matter  Core leaders come from Long March Survivors  Party membership based on class background  (Red Scarf Girl gives good examples)  China gets off to a good start  Korean War: Chinese  “volunteers” first route  then fight to a stalemate  with UN/US

7 People’s Republic Independent China, Great China  Mao envisions China restored to Greatness  Works with USSR at first  Later asserts China’s independence from USSR  Pursues military strength to guarantee independence

8 Mao: Cult of Personality Charismatic leadership Mao becomes the preeminent leader Mao can do no wrong Mao is the father and hero Mao has a radical vision of where China must go Resents any delay Despises gradualism Longs to see China truly “Communist” immediately

9 China’s Communist Revolution: Fits and Starts East Wind – West Wind Red v Expert Political Enthusiasm or Pragmatism Endless campaigns…  Political purges  Reeducation and Struggle Meetings

10 East Wind – West Wind Pattern Revolutionary Campaigns  Chaos Chaos  Economic disaster Economic disaster  Pragmatism Pragmatism  Economic stability  Pragmatism frustrates Mao’s “Revolution”  Mao reasserts leadership with new Campaign  Political purge of pragmatists as “capitalists” or “counterrevolutionaries”  Start over …. Great leap Forward

11 1950s 1950-1953: Korean War Stabilize control in China 1956 Hundred Flowers Campaign “Let 100 flowers bloom, let 100 ideas contend” Attempt to push revolution forward Opened up for criticism of Party and Mao Shut down and critics purged/punished

12 1958: Great Leap Forward Collectivize Agriculture Take away private plots Leap past phases of industrial development Jump straight into heavy industry Modernize military Back yard steel mills Communal kitchens

13 1958: Great Leap Forward Back yard steel mills Every village had one Communal kitchens and daycare Free women’s labor for factories Catastrophic crop failures  food shortages Back yard steel useless and can’t be delivered

14 1958+ Great Leap Forward Mao and “Reds” discredited Pragmatist: Deng Xiaoping emerges “It doesn’t matter what color the cat is, so long as it catches mice” or “black cat, white cat, just so it catches mice” Order and economic stability restored 1960-62

15 Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 This is the background for Red Scarf Girl 1966:  Economy is stable  Mao sees a lack of progress  Mao has been pushed aside by pragmatists: wants back in the limelight

16 Cultural Revolution Play: "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office“ Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, sees it as an attack on Mao’s dismissal of Peng Dehuai Jiang Qing publishes an attack on the play in the Shanghai paper Calls on people to defend Mao Mao joins in and calls on students and young people to defend the revolution and criticize “reactionary” leaders in Schools and the Party Jiang Qing: "Let the new socialistic performing arts occupy every stage."

17 Cultural Revolution Officially: Revolution had stalled Old culture was the cause Only youth untainted by pre-revolutionary culture can lead forward China can and must move forward to new phases of the ongoing Revolution

18 Cultural Revolution Behind the Scenes: Mao was weakened by Great Leap Mao was aging Mao wanted to reassert control Power battle between Mao and Pragmatists: especially Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Mao mobilized the youth to help him with the internal power struggle in the Party and government Lui: Dies, Deng: Sentenced to farm labor

19 Cultural Revolution Effects: School Stopped Local Party decimated Enormous suffering Struggle meetings Families destroyed China’s “lost generation” “Red Scarf Girl” Movie: “To Live” (last part)

20 Post Mao Reform Mao Dies: 1976 Official mourning but little real public grief Mao’s wife and three friends seize power to reinvigorate the Cultural Revolution

21 Post Mao Reform Reformers out-manipulate radicals and arrest “Gang of Four” Gang of Four tried: Vilified as the perpetrators of the Cultural Revolution Jiang Qing, especially took advantage of Mao’s dotage Cultural revolution was her fault Mao’s memory remains infallible and untainted by Cultural Revolution

22 Post Mao Reform Deng Xiaoping reemerges: Becomes chairman of party, head of the government and commander of the People’s Liberation Army “To get rich is glorious.”  Deng institutes agricultural reforms  First, sales of garden vegetables OKed  Over-quota farm produce approved for open market  Ag sector got wealthy

23 Deng Xiaoping’s reform After Ag sector, business sector gets market reforms Businesses can sell over-quota items on open market Cooperatives can buy business from government Foreign investment sought Effectively, China becomes a thriving, market-capitalist economy, growing like mad

24 Tienanmen Square 1989 Deng retires in mid ’80s Pressure for democratic participation builds Some government leaders concede it might be desirable or at least acceptable Demonstrations and a sit-in in Tienanmen: summer 1989

25 Tienanmen Square 1989 Government waivers for weeks Demonstrations continue strong Government calls in troops People of Beijing stop the troops Classic picture of one man stopping a column of tanks As world watches, Deng returns from retirement and calls in special forces: bloody massacre (AP Photo/Jeff Widener)

26 Post Tienanmen Economic Reforms Continue Chinese business prospers Chinese democracy seems stillborn and few seem interested for now

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