2 China’s Last Emperor1912 – Puyi, the last Emperor of China, stepped down from his throne.This brought an end to the Qing Dynasty.
3 Civil War in China 2 Sides 1 - The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek.2 – The Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
4 World War II During WWII, both sides worked together to defeat Japan. China lost million people during the war.Images of the Japanese army in China.
5 Mao in front of his People’s Liberation Army. Mao and the PLA1945 – after the end of WWII, millions of peasants joined Mao’s People’s Liberation Army.1949 – Mao’s PLA defeated the Nationalists.Mao in front of his People’s Liberation Army.
6 TaiwanChiang Kai-Shek and 2 million followers fled to island of Taiwan. Now called ROC – or the Republic of China.
7 His goal – turn China from an agrarian power to an industrial power. The Great Leap Forward1958 – Mao’s goal was to catch up with the USA in terms of Industrial might.His goal – turn China from an agrarian power to an industrial power.“Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand.” – Government slogan.
8 The Great Leap Forward“Take steel as the principle. Leap forward in all fields.” Or “Steel is essential, fully leap forward.”
9 Collectivization1955 – Land was taken from wealthy landowners, and given to peasants.2/3 of all peasants received land.Who would support Mao? Landowners or Peasants?
10 CollectivizationHe created collective farms with 30,000 people who were to live and work together.It was a huge failure.
11 The Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward was a disaster and a failure!15 million people died from starvation.Natural disasters and policy decisions made by Mao were to blame.
12 China’s Great Famine“He knew how to organize a revolution but he did not know how to run a country.” –Comment from one of Mao’s advisors about Mao.
13 4 years later… Mao is Back Mao’s new ideas were published in the Little Red Book.He called for a new “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.”
14 One of the largest number of books printed in history. Mao’s Little Red BookOne of the largest number of books printed in history.
15 Mao’s Cultural Revolution Mao’s Revolutionary Guards or Red Guardsbrought on death and destruction.30 – 40 Million people were arrested, harassed and killed.
16 Mao’s Cultural Revolution The Red Guards were to eliminate the 4 Olds:Old IdeasOld CultureOld CustomsOld Habits
17 Mao’s Cultural Revolution Torture, rape, imprisonment, harassment, and seizure of property were common.
18 Mao’s Cultural Revolution Intellectuals were targeted for attack:Professors, teachers, doctors, artists, people who had traveled or studied in the USA. “Pro-Western.”
19 The Red Guard In 1968, the Red Guard was disbanded. The PLA carried out mass executions of Red Guard members.This brought an end to the Cultural Revolution.
20 Deng Xiaoping Sept. 1976 – Mao died at the age of 82. After Mao, China was 20 years behind the rest of the world.Deng Xiaoping seized power and ended the Cultural Revolution.
21 Deng XiaopingDeng instituted the 4 Modernizations - Industry, Agriculture, Technology and National Defense.Foreign investors were invited in China and students were sent to study abroad.