Presentation on theme: "1912 – Puyi, the last Emperor of China, stepped down from his throne. This brought an end to the Qing Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:
1912 – Puyi, the last Emperor of China, stepped down from his throne. This brought an end to the Qing Dynasty.
2 Sides 1 - The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek. 2 – The Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
During WWII, both sides worked together to defeat Japan. China lost million people during the war. Images of the Japanese army in China.
1945 – after the end of WWII, millions of peasants joined Mao’s People’s Liberation Army – Mao’s PLA defeated the Nationalists. Mao in front of his People’s Liberation Army.
Chiang Kai-Shek and 2 million followers fled to island of Taiwan. Now called ROC – or the Republic of China.
1958 – Mao’s goal was to catch up with the USA in terms of Industrial might. His goal – turn China from an agrarian power to an industrial power. “Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand.” – Government slogan.
“Take steel as the principle. Leap forward in all fields.” Or “Steel is essential, fully leap forward.”
1955 – Land was taken from wealthy landowners, and given to peasants. 2/3 of all peasants received land. Who would support Mao? Landowners or Peasants?
He created collective farms with 30,000 people who were to live and work together. It was a huge failure.
The Great Leap Forward was a disaster and a failure! 15 million people died from starvation. Natural disasters and policy decisions made by Mao were to blame.
“He knew how to organize a revolution but he did not know how to run a country.” – Comment from one of Mao’s advisors about Mao.
Mao’s new ideas were published in the Little Red Book. He called for a new “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.”
One of the largest number of books printed in history.
Mao’s Revolutionary Guards or Red Guards brought on death and destruction. 30 – 40 Million people were arrested, harassed and killed.
The Red Guards were to eliminate the 4 Olds: Old Ideas Old Culture Old Customs Old Habits
Torture, rape, imprisonment, harassment, and seizure of property were common.
Intellectuals were targeted for attack: Professors, teachers, doctors, artists, people who had traveled or studied in the USA. “Pro-Western.”
In 1968, the Red Guard was disbanded. The PLA carried out mass executions of Red Guard members. This brought an end to the Cultural Revolution.
Sept – Mao died at the age of 82. After Mao, China was 20 years behind the rest of the world. Deng Xiaoping seized power and ended the Cultural Revolution.
Deng instituted the 4 Modernizations - Industry, Agriculture, Technology and National Defense. Foreign investors were invited in China and students were sent to study abroad.